botulin


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toxin

 [tok´sin]
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases.
bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins, and toxic enzymes. See also toxin.
botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum,neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. They cause botulism by preventing release of acetylcholine by the cholinergic fibers. Type A is one of the most powerful poisons known; it is also used therapeutically by injection to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, to treat wrinkles of the upper face, and to reduce anal sphincter pressure to promote healing of chronic anal fissure. Type B is injected in treatment of cervical dystonia. Called also botulin.
cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae; a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system, causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera.
clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulism (botulinus toxin), gas gangrene (gas gangrene toxin), and tetanus (tetanus toxin). In addition, C. difficile produces an exotoxin causing severe intestinal necrosis and C. perfringens produces exotoxins causing gas gangrene, intestinal necrosis, hemolysis, cardiotoxicity, and deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase activity, as well as an enterotoxin causing food poisoning.
Dick toxin erythrogenic toxin.
diphtheria toxin a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheria and related infections; it is an enzyme that activates transferase II of the mammalian protein synthesizing system.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test a sterile solution of the diluted, standardized toxic products of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; used as a dermal reactivity indicator in the schick test of immunity to diphtheria.
dysentery toxin any of various exotoxins produced by species of Shigella; the one formed by S. dysenteriae serotype 1 is a potent neurotoxin with hemorrhagic and paralytic properties.
erythrogenic toxin a bacterial toxin from certain strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that produces an erythematous reaction when injected intradermally and is responsible for the rash in scarlet fever.
extracellular toxin exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin an exotoxin that causes gas gangrene; there are at least 10 types produced by Clostridium perfringens and others produced by C. noriyi and C. septicum.
streptococcal toxin a mixture of exotoxins formed by Streptococcus pyogenes.
tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).

bot·u·li·nus tox·in

a potent exotoxin that is highly neurotoxic derived from Clostridium botulinum. Occurs in seven serotypes, noted as A-G (A, B, and E are responsible for most human disease). Serotype A is a variant used in medical experiments.
Synonym(s): botulin, botulismotoxin

botulin

/bot·u·lin/ (boch´u-lin) botulinum toxin.

botulin

(bŏch′ə-lĭn)
n.
Any of several enzymes that are produced by botulinum bacteria and induce the paralysis of botulism by interfering with the ability of neurons to release acetylcholine at nerve-muscle junctures. Botulin is used as an antispasmodic and a treatment for wrinkles by paralyzing facial muscles. Also called botulinum toxin.

botulinum toxin

Medspeak
50-kD neurotoxin with 7 distinct serotypes, produced by strains of Clostridium botulinum, which are billed as the most potent neurotoxins known; type C1 has an LD50 of 32 ng; type A, BTX-A (the cosmetic Botox) has an LD50 of 40-56 ng. 

Clinical findings
Nausea, diarrhoea, weakness, dizziness, respiratory paralysis, death.

Botulinum toxin (botulin)

A neurotoxin made by Clostridium botulinum; causes paralysis in high doses, but is used medically in small, localized doses to treat disorders associated with involuntary muscle contraction and spasms, in addition to strabismus.
Mentioned in: Eye Muscle Surgery

botulin

References in periodicals archive ?
The precise mechanism by which the antibodies disable botulin isn't known, says report coauthor Leonard A.
It's curable if treated early (preferably at onset of symptoms, including sick stomach, blurred vision and difficulty breathing) at a health facility equipped with a stomach pump and botulin antitoxin.
Then, in March 1995, just before the sarin subway attack, an attempt to spray botulin toxin in the subway at Kasumagaseki Station was preempted by a cult member who opted not to load the improvised briefcase sprayers with actual agent.
Welsh common sense prevailed on Nicola HT when 55-year-old Laurina from Cwmbran revealed she had fabulous skin without going near botulin toxin type A.
Other threats include botulin, typhus, yellow fever and encephalitis.
In the media, Russian defectors talk alarmingly of new strains of untreatable anthrax and deadly cocktails of smallpox and Ebola; teenage hackers invade super-secret Pentagon computers; Aum Shinrikyo is said to be back in force, if not in action, after the Tokyo subway nerve gas incident; and three Texans are charged with plotting to assassinate President Clinton with a cactus needle coated with botulin flicked from a cigarette lighter.
Mr Richard Butler, chairman of the UN Special Commission in charge of scrapping Iraqs weapons, raised a storm with comments that Iraq had enough biological material, such as anthrax or botulin toxin, "to blow away Tel Aviv".
Biodefence Research - As part of the UK Government's biodefence initiative, the Defence, Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) of Porton Down is investigating the utility of selected British Biotech metalloenzyme inhibitors against anthrax lethal toxin and botulin toxin.
Botulin Toxin: Botulinum toxin is produced by Clostridium botulinum and acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter preventing release of acetylcholine from the presynaptic terminals.
Dr Bach McComb jabbed Bonnie and Eric Kaplan with raw botulin toxin rather than the anti-wrinkle drug derived from it.
Saddam Hussein is a bloodthirsty dictator who has used poison gas against civilians, and even now is likely cooking up botulin, anthrax and nerve gas in basements around Baghdad.
Biodefense Research - As part of the UK Government's biodefense initiative, the Defense, Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) of Porton Down is investigating the utility of selected British Biotech metalloenzyme inhibitors against anthrax lethal toxin and botulin toxin.