botulin


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Financial, Encyclopedia.
Related to botulin: Clostridium botulinum, Botulinum toxin type a, Botulinum antitoxin

toxin

 [tok´sin]
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases.
bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins, and toxic enzymes. See also toxin.
botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum,neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. They cause botulism by preventing release of acetylcholine by the cholinergic fibers. Type A is one of the most powerful poisons known; it is also used therapeutically by injection to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, to treat wrinkles of the upper face, and to reduce anal sphincter pressure to promote healing of chronic anal fissure. Type B is injected in treatment of cervical dystonia. Called also botulin.
cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae; a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system, causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera.
clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulism (botulinus toxin), gas gangrene (gas gangrene toxin), and tetanus (tetanus toxin). In addition, C. difficile produces an exotoxin causing severe intestinal necrosis and C. perfringens produces exotoxins causing gas gangrene, intestinal necrosis, hemolysis, cardiotoxicity, and deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase activity, as well as an enterotoxin causing food poisoning.
Dick toxin erythrogenic toxin.
diphtheria toxin a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheria and related infections; it is an enzyme that activates transferase II of the mammalian protein synthesizing system.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test a sterile solution of the diluted, standardized toxic products of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; used as a dermal reactivity indicator in the schick test of immunity to diphtheria.
dysentery toxin any of various exotoxins produced by species of Shigella; the one formed by S. dysenteriae serotype 1 is a potent neurotoxin with hemorrhagic and paralytic properties.
erythrogenic toxin a bacterial toxin from certain strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that produces an erythematous reaction when injected intradermally and is responsible for the rash in scarlet fever.
extracellular toxin exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin an exotoxin that causes gas gangrene; there are at least 10 types produced by Clostridium perfringens and others produced by C. noriyi and C. septicum.
streptococcal toxin a mixture of exotoxins formed by Streptococcus pyogenes.
tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).

bot·u·li·nus tox·in

a potent exotoxin that is highly neurotoxic derived from Clostridium botulinum. Occurs in seven serotypes, noted as A-G (A, B, and E are responsible for most human disease). Serotype A is a variant used in medical experiments.
Synonym(s): botulin, botulismotoxin

botulin

/bot·u·lin/ (boch´u-lin) botulinum toxin.

botulin

(bŏch′ə-lĭn)
n.
Any of several enzymes that are produced by botulinum bacteria and induce the paralysis of botulism by interfering with the ability of neurons to release acetylcholine at nerve-muscle junctures. Botulin is used as an antispasmodic and a treatment for wrinkles by paralyzing facial muscles. Also called botulinum toxin.

botulinum toxin

Medspeak
50-kD neurotoxin with 7 distinct serotypes, produced by strains of Clostridium botulinum, which are billed as the most potent neurotoxins known; type C1 has an LD50 of 32 ng; type A, BTX-A (the cosmetic Botox) has an LD50 of 40-56 ng. 

Clinical findings
Nausea, diarrhoea, weakness, dizziness, respiratory paralysis, death.

Botulinum toxin (botulin)

A neurotoxin made by Clostridium botulinum; causes paralysis in high doses, but is used medically in small, localized doses to treat disorders associated with involuntary muscle contraction and spasms, in addition to strabismus.
Mentioned in: Eye Muscle Surgery

botulin

References in periodicals archive ?
Smith and his colleagues used one of seven known types of botulin in their study.
Then, in March 1995, just before the sarin subway attack, an attempt to spray botulin toxin in the subway at Kasumagaseki Station was preempted by a cult member who opted not to load the improvised briefcase sprayers with actual agent.
Biodefence Research - As part of the UK Government's biodefence initiative, the Defence, Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) of Porton Down is investigating the utility of selected British Biotech metalloenzyme inhibitors against anthrax lethal toxin and botulin toxin.
Dr Bach McComb jabbed Bonnie and Eric Kaplan with raw botulin toxin rather than the anti-wrinkle drug derived from it.
Biodefense Research - As part of the UK Government's biodefense initiative, the Defense, Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) of Porton Down is investigating the utility of selected British Biotech metalloenzyme inhibitors against anthrax lethal toxin and botulin toxin.
And, yes, unlike some imitators, this one actually does contain Botulin toxin type A.
And as we know, Iraq has not accounted for its VX, it has not accounted for its sarin, it has not accounted for its anthrax or its botulin.