The genes displayed elevated expression also included runt-related transcription factor 2 (RunX2:2.26-fold), ENPP1 (1.95-fold), and bone gamma-carboxyglutamate
(gla) protein/osteocalcin (BGLAP/osteocalcin: 1.87-fold), all of which were previously implicated in OA or pathological calcification associated with OA [36-39].
Osteocalcin, also called bone gamma-carboxyglutamate
(Gla) protein, is a small, noncollagenous protein that is specific for bone tissue and dentin, but its precise function remains unknown. Osteocalcin is synthesized predominantly by the osteoblast and is mostly incorporated into the extracellular matrix of the bone.