Modern semiconductor-based bolometers
are constructed using MEMS techniques to suspend the individual elements above the substrate.
The supercooled germanium bolometer
detected all wavelengths of infrared with sensitivities hundreds of times greater than those of lead-sulfide cells.
Second is the potential of HTSC materials to be used as detector materials lat longer wave-lengths in a device called a bolometer
(the heart of the experiment) were unharmed.
During a routine check for contamination in their bolometers
, which happen to be built around crystals containing bismuth, the team noticed an unexpected alpha decay not listed in any reference tables.
The detection portion of the system is centered on a focal plane array of uncooled, millimeter-wave bolometers
In these studies, a blackbody source was used at liquid nitrogen temperatures to test FIRAS performance, but not with its real bolometers
offer an interesting alternative since they do not require cooling and are cheaper.
For other types of photodetectors and bolometers
, the transducer output may be more conveniently expressed in terms of other parameters that match their underlying physics.
Despite numerous technological challenges, the first photometrists successfully measured stellar brightnesses with an almost bewildering variety of tools, including bolometers
, photovoltaic cells, radiometers, and thermocouples.
, which are currently more sensitive than HEMTs, require cooling to a fraction of a kelvin -- nearly absolute zero -- and give best results when detecting radiation at wavelengths shorter than 3 millimeters.
Thermal detectors, such as bolometers
, thermocouples and pyroelectric detectors, rely on a change of temperature to cause a change in some measurable property, such as resistance.