A bitter alkaloid obtained from boldus.
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Phenolic constituents (primarily proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides), alkaloids, and essential oils are the main bioactive compounds of boldo leaf extracts, of which boldine is the main constituent.
Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Anti inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine. Inflamm.
(22.) de Almeida ER, Melo AM, Xavier H, Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.
Among ISQAs, morphine (an opioid analgesic drug) [2], berberine (a digestive system stimulant and antiprotozoal, antinociceptive, and neuroprotective agent) [3], boldine (a bile production stimulant), codeine (analgesic and antitussive remedy) [4], galanthamine (a competitive reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in mild and moderate dementia) [5], or papaverine (antispasmotic agent) should be listed as commonly used medicines [2].
Fernandez et al., "Inhibition of glial hemichannels by boldine treatment reduces neuronal suffering in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease," Glia, vol.
Lee, "Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats," Pharmacological Research, vol.
In accordance with structural forms, the cited alkaloids are classified in diterpenoid alkaloids (14-O-acetylneoline, 14-O-veratroylpseudaconine, and hypaconitine), indole alkaloids (fumigaclavine C and isatin), indolonaphthyridine alkaloids (nigakinone), indoloquinazoline alkaloids (tryptanthin), isoquinoline alkaloids (berberine, boldine, cavidine, coptisine derivatives, EM012, papaverine, sanguinarine, sinomenine, tetrahydrocoptisine, and tetrandrine), phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids (NK-007 and W-8), piperidine alkaloids (piperine), purine alkaloids (caffeine), quinoline alkaloids (skimmianine), and quinolizidine alkaloids (matrine, oxymatrine, sophocarpine, and sophoridine).
Most studies on boldo leaf constituents focus on alkaloids and particularly on boldine, the main aporphine alkaloid present in the tree bark (Simirgiotis and Schmeda-Hirschmann, 2010).
It's time that Bou-lianne, who's spent most of her Met career in trousers, got the chance to wear a lead-inglady's skirts: far more than Fleming or Magee, she gave the audience something real to enjoy Otto Schenk's staging, in Gunther Schneider-Siemssen's magically atmospheric sets, remains, like Zeffirelli's La boldine, a cherish able memento of a vanishing era of operatic production.
Lee, "Protective effect of boldine on dopamine-induced membrane permeability transition in brain mitochondria and viability loss in PC12 cells," Biochemical Pharmacology, vol.