The MBSRQ (Brown, Cash, & Mikulka, 1990) is a 69-item scale that measures aspects of body image disturbance
Sexual minority men, defined for this study as men who identify as bisexual or gay, are believed to be more strongly affected by body image disturbances
and associated consequences compared with their heterosexual peers (Boroughs & Thompson, 2002; Chaney, 2008; Drummond, 2005; Feldman & Meyer, 2007; Harvey & Robinson, 2003; Morgan & Arcelus, 2009; Wiseman & Moradi, 2010).
Responses to questions may be exaggerated affecting the reliability of results by using modifications of validated Body Image Disturbance
Questionnaire (BIDQ) instrument in dermatological perspective.
1-3 For many years, body dissatisfaction and body image disturbances
were known as western phenomenon especially amongst females,4,5 but in recent years, these issues are located in males and other cultures as well.
This study suggests that male Asian university students in Australia are at particular risk of developing body image disturbances
, irrespective of their level of acculturation.
Bruch (1973) indicated that prognosis for obese patients were guarded unless their body image disturbance
Television images and adolescent girls' body image disturbance
Because it is relatively common in the general population, researchers continue to investigate possible causal variables to further understand and treat both body image disturbance
This aims to extend the ecological validity and clinical relevance of this research, as most people presenting in clinical settings with body image disturbance
are only seen remedially (i.
Then, because some groups may use compensatory behaviors not adequately captured by current definitions of eating disorders, they specifically examined body image disturbance
among these groups.
Harrison, 2003; Harrison & Cantor, 1997; Silverstein, Perdue, Peterson, & Kelly, 1986; Tiggemann, 2003) have suggested that exposure to mass media ideal messages is linked to females' body image disturbance
In particular, fitness centers have been identified as potentially objectifying environments that may promote body image disturbance
(Prichard & Tiggemann, 2005a, 2005b, 2008; Ravaldi et al.