ammonia

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ammonia

 [ah-mo´nyah]
a colorless alkaline gas, NH3, with a pungent odor and acrid taste, and soluble in water.
ammonia N 13 ammonia in which a portion of the molecules are labeled with 13N; used in positron emission tomography of the cardiovascular system, brain, and liver.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

am·mo·ni·a

(ă-mō'nē-ă),
A colorless volatile gas, NH3, highly soluble in water, capable of forming a weak base, which combines with acids to form ammonium compounds.
[fr. L. sal ammoniacus, salt of Amen (G. Ammōn), obtained near a temple of Amen in Libya]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

ammonia

Biochemistry
An irritating, water-soluble, strongly basic, colourless gas, which is lighter than air.
 
Industry
Ammonia (NH3) is used in explosives, fertilisers, refrigerants and household cleaning solutions.
 
Physiology
NH3 is produced in the liver, intestine and kidneys as an end-product of protein metabolism; the liver converts ammonia into urea, which is then excreted by the kidneys; in liver disease this conversion is decreased, resulting in increased serum ammonia. Serial measurement of ammonia is used to follow progression of hepatic encephalopathy in Reye syndrome and other conditions.
 
Ref range
15–49 µg/dL.
 
Abnormal values
Increased hepatic coma, Reye syndrome, severe CHF, GI haemorrhage, erythroblastosis fetalis, drugs (e.g., diuretics and antibiotics).
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

ammonia

NH3 Physiology NH3 is produced in the liver, intestine, and kidneys as endproduct of protein metabolism; the liver converts ammonia into urea, which is then excreted by the kidneys; in liver disease this conversion is diminished, resulting in ↑ serum ammonia; serial measurement of ammonia is used to follow the progression of hepatic encephalopathy in Reye syndrome and other conditions Ref range 15-49 µg/dL Abnormal values ↑ Hepatic coma, Reye syndrome, severe CHF, GI hemorrhage, erythroblastosis fetalis, drugs–eg, diuretics and antibiotics. See Hepatic encephalopathy.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

am·mo·nia

(NH3) (ă-mō'nē-ă)
A colorless volatile gas, NH3, highly soluble in water, capable of forming a weak base, which combines with acids to form ammonium compounds.
[fr. L. sal ammoniacus, salt of Amen (G. Ammōn), obtained near a temple of Amen in Libya]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

ammonia

A substance produced when AMINO ACIDS are broken down. Ammonia is converted by the liver into urea and excreted in the urine. Urea can be broken down by bacterial enzymes to release ammonia. This may be a cause of nappy rash in babies.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

ammonia

a colourless gas, which is the main form in which nitrogen is utilized in living cells. Formula: NH3.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

am·mo·nia

(ă-mō'nē-ă)
A colorless volatile gas, NH3, highly soluble in water, capable of forming a weak base, which combines with acids to form ammonium compounds.
[fr. L. sal ammoniacus, salt of Amen (G. Ammōn), obtained near a temple of Amen in Libya]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
We studied blood ammonia levels regarding the presence of endoscopic risk signs for esophageal varix bleeding, and we noted that the mean blood ammonia was significantly higher among patients having one or more of these endoscopic signs than in patients having none of them (p=0.009) (Table 2).
On the other hand, cases with severe PHG had significantly higher levels of blood ammonia (192.69 [+ or -] 59.87 versus 151.39 [+ or -] 54.37 [micro]g/dL) (P = 0.026) and significantly lower splenic longitudinal diameters (P = 0.001) (Table 3).
No significant differences were observed in age, gender, Child-Pugh stage, MELD score, AST, ALT, preoperative blood ammonia level, or PPG before or after shunt between the two groups (Table 1).
The results indicated that blood ammonia (P<0.05, OR=1.636, 95%CI=1.3641.962) and LA levels (P<0.05, OR=10.591, 95%CI=5.36420.912) were independent risk factors for ALF, while the CC genotype of rs873457 (P<0.05, OR=0.375, 95% CI=0.221-0.634) and the CC genotype of rs4846085 were protective factors for ALF.
Blood ammonia levels were re-checked approximately two weeks after the discontinuation of valproic acid therapy.
1939 Conway and Cook develop the first clinical laboratory method for blood ammonia; American Medical Technologists is founded.
In addition, the physician can use two medications (lactulose and neomycin) to control blood ammonia levels.
Carriers have enough functional enzyme under most circumstances but may succumb to high blood ammonia levels when the body is under extreme duress, such as the postpartum period following childbirth, he notes.
The decision to discontinue the program was based on top-line data from an interim analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 1b/2a study of the Synthetic Biotic medicine in 23 patients with cirrhosis and elevated blood ammonia. The study was designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of SYNB1020 treatment, as well as changes in blood ammonia levels and several exploratory endpoints associated with early stage hepatic encephalopathy.
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study is designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of SYNB1020, as well as its ability to lower blood-ammonia levels in patients with cirrhosis and elevated blood ammonia.
PRX-OTC has shown therapeutic potential in a preclinical model of OTCD, including lowering of blood ammonia and survival of 100% of treated mice.