Cleavage-stage biopsy significantly impairs human embryonic implantation potential while blastocyst biopsy
does not: a randomized and paired clinical trial.
Blastocyst biopsy provides significantly greater cell amount compared to polar body/blastomere biopsy, but this method demands cryopreservation owing to the time required for genetic analysis.
Until 2010, early embryo biopsy was the most frequent aspect of genetic analysis (1999-2009: 26.284 cycles; 2009-2010: 4.918 cycles) compared to polar body (1999-2009: 3.750 cycles; 2009-2010: 997 cycles) and blastocyst biopsy which was used the least often (1999-2009: 105 cycles; 2009-2010: 6 cycles) .
Forman et al., "Blastocyst biopsy
with comprehensive chromosome screening and fresh embryo transfer significantly increases in vitro fertilization implantation and delivery rates: a randomized controlled trial," Fertility and Sterility, vol.
Bohrer et al., "A randomized and blinded comparison of qPCR and NGS-based detection of aneuploidy in a cell line mixture model of blastocyst biopsy
mosaicism," Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, vol.
PGS and mtDNA analysis can be performed in parallel on a single blastocyst biopsy
, providing a more thorough picture of embryo health without a significant change in workflow for the clinic or patient.
First live birth following blastocyst biopsy
and PGD analysis.
In 2002, Kylie de Boer and her assistants reported the first live birth after blastocyst biopsy
for PGD (92).
These methods range from biopsy of polar bodies to single-cell blastomere and routine two-cell blastomere biopsy--and, more recently, to blastocyst biopsy
. The impact of these various embryo manipulations has yet to be fully considered.
has also been suggested in this regard, but since the blastocyst has a higher degree of chromosomal mosaicism and since trophectodermic cells could be mistakenly taken out (they can differ chromosomally from the inner mass cells), Day-3 biopsies prove more accurate (9).