Our case report suggests that it is straightforward, from a logistical and technical perspective, to incorporate the sampling of blastocoel
fluid and spent culture medium into routine clinical practice.
pectinifera appears to develop in the following order: (1) differentiation of the coelomic pouches, (2) immigration of presumptive muscle cells from the coelomic pouches to the blastocoel
, (3) migration of the muscles along an extracellular matrix to the esophageal basement membrane, (4) extension of pseudopodia containing F-actin on the basement membrane, (5) growth of pseudopodia from the primitive muscle cells, (6) development of primitive muscles into the circumesophagus muscles that run parallel to each other, and (7) development of some oblique circumesophagus muscles on the parallel bundles.
Gastrulation clearly takes place by invagination: vegetal cells constrict at their apical ends as their basal regions extend into the blastocoel
However, we did not observe any PMC descendants maintaining strong expression of the antigen and migrating in the blastocoel
to form new spicules.
By this stage the larvae swam at the bottom of the dish anterior end up, buoyed by the abundant lipid reserves in the blastocoel
of this region of the larva.
excentricus blastulae during development indicates that density regulation is occurring as early as the 7th cleavage, when the blastocoel
begins to take shape (about the same time intercellular junctions are forming; Okazaki, 1975).
3D), and primary mesenchyme cells in the vegetal pole wall are set free into the blastocoel
ballii, blastomeres containing zooxanthellae move into the blastocoel
of developing embryos, eventually filling the space and forming a stereogastrula (Hirose et al., 2000).
The wide archenteron greatly reduces the blastocoel
. The blastopore begins to constrict, changing the shape of the gastrula, once again into a sphere (Fig.
The gastral cavity is different in origin and structure from the central cavity of coeloblastulae, which is a retained blastocoel
During primary invagination, the thickened vegetal plate buckles into the blastocoel
and gives rise to a short stub-like gut rudiment.
With continued cell division, blastomeres containing zooxanthellae moved into the blastocoel
. The blastocoel
disappeared at about 5 h after the first cleava ge, and the central region of the embryo was filled with cells containing either zooxantheline or lipid droplets, forming a stereogastrula.