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(blad'er), [TA]
A distensible musculomembranous organ serving as a receptacle for fluid, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder. See: detrusor.
See: detrusor.
[A.S. blaedre]


/blad·der/ (blad´er)
1. a membranous sac, such as one serving as receptacle for a secretion.

atonic neurogenic bladder  neurogenic bladder due to destruction of sensory nerve fibers from the bladder to the spinal cord, with absence of control of bladder functions and of desire to urinate, bladder overdistention, and an abnormal amount of residual urine; usually associated with tabes dorsalis or pernicious anemia.
automatic bladder  neurogenic bladder due to complete transection of the spinal cord above the sacral segments, with loss of micturition reflexes and bladder sensation, involuntary urination, and an abnormal amount of residual urine.
autonomic bladder , autonomous bladder neurogenic bladder due to a lesion in the sacral spinal cord, interrupting the reflex arc controlling the bladder, with loss of normal bladder sensation and reflexes, inability to initiate urination normally, and incontinence.
gall bladder  gallbladder.
ileal bladder  a neobladder made from a section of ileum.
irritable bladder  a condition of the bladder marked by increased frequency of contraction with associated desire to urinate.
motor paralytic bladder  neurogenic bladder due to impairment of motor neurons or nerves controlling the bladder; the acute form is marked by painful distention and inability to initiate urination, and the chronic form by difficulty initiating urination, straining, decreased size and force of stream, interrupted stream, and recurrent urinary tract infection.
neurogenic bladder  dysfunction of the urinary bladder caused by a lesion of the central or peripheral nervous system.
uninhibited neurogenic bladder  neurogenic bladder due to a lesion in upper motor neurons with subtotal interruption of corticospinal pathways, with urgency, frequent involuntary urination, and small-volume threshold of activity.
urinary bladder  the musculomembranous sac in the anterior part of the pelvic cavity that serves as a reservoir for urine, which it receives through the ureters and discharges through the urethra.


a. Anatomy Any of various distensible membranous sacs, such as the urinary bladder or the swim bladder, that serve as receptacles for fluid or gas.
b. Medicine A blister, pustule, or cyst filled with fluid or air; a vesicle.
c. An item resembling one of the membranous sacs in animals: the bladder of a buoyancy compensator.


Etymology: AS, blaedre
1 a membranous sac serving as a receptacle for secretions, such as the gallbladder.
2 the urinary bladder.
enlarge picture


A membranous sac that serves as a reservoir for urine. It is fed via a ureter from each kidney, and empties urine via the urethra. It is lined by a specialised layer of epithelium (the urothelium) and is surrounded by two thick layers of smooth muscle.

Superior and inferior vesical arteries, umbilical artery, vaginal artery.

Vesical venous plexus.
Vesical nervous plexus.
Embryonal origin
Urogenital sinus.


Change of life, climacteric, 'time of life'  Gynecology The cessation of menstrual activity due to failure to form ovarian follicles, which normally occurs age 45–50 Clinical Menstrual irregularity, vasomotor instability, 'hot flashes', irritability or psychosis, ↑ weight, painful breasts, dyspareunia, ↑/↓ libido, atrophy of urogenital epithelium and skin, ASHD, MI, strokes and osteoporosis–which can be lessened by HRT. See Estrogen replacement therapy, Hot flashes, Male menopause, Premature ovarian failure, Premature menopause. Cf Menarche.
Menopause–”…what a drag it is getting old.” Jagger, Richards
Bladder Cystourethritis, frequency/urgency, stress incontinence
Breasts ↓ Size, softer consistency, sagging
Cardiovascular Angina, ASHD, CAD
Endocrine Hot flashes
Mucocutaneous Atrophy, dryness, pruritus, facial hirsutism, dry mouth
Neurologic Psychological, sleep disturbances
Pelvic floor Uterovaginal prolapse
Skeleton  Osteoporosis, fractures, low back pain
Vagina Bloody discharge, dyspareunia, vaginitis
Vocal cords Deepened voice
Vulva  Atrophy, dystrophy, pruritus


(blad'ĕr) [TA]
1. A distensible musculomembranous organ serving as a receptacle for fluid, as the gallbladder or urinary bladder.
See: detrusor
2. Synonym(s): urinary bladder. Synonym(s): vesica (1) .
[A.S. blaedre ]


Bladderclick for a larger image
Fig. 69 Bladder . Summary of bladder control.
Bladderclick for a larger image
Fig. 68 Bladder . The mammalian bladder.


a hollow muscular bag situated in the lower abdominal cavity of mammals serving as a reservoir for urine from the kidneys. The bladder is composed of an internal epithelium surrounded by a coat of smooth muscle running in both circular and longitudinal directions, contraction of which causes complete collapse of the bag-like shape. The flow of urine down the URETERS from kidneys to the bladder is continuous, the amount depending on body fluid levels. When the bladder is empty the opening to the outside is closed by an internal SPHINCTER of smooth muscle which, like the bladder muscle, is controlled by the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. When full, the internal sphincter relaxes under nervous control and urine enters the URETHRA (the duct to the outside), but is prevented from being voided by contraction of an external sphincter of striated muscle. Regulation of the sphincter (and thus or urine release or ‘micturition’) is under voluntary nervous control.


The muscular sac or container that stores urine until it is released from the body through the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body (urethra).


a membranous sac serving as a receptacle. See also gallbladder, urinary bladder.

bladder meridian points
acupuncture points on the bladder meridian.

Patient discussion about bladder

Q. What is involved in Gall Bladder surgery?

A. If you refer to removal of the gal bladder due to stones, then it may be performed either in an open approach (using an arch-like incision in your right upper abdomen) or in a laparoscopic approach (using only three small incisions to insert devices into your abdomen). The operation itself is not long and not associated with significant problems after it.

Q. How to prevent getting a bladder infection? I am worried about getting another bladder infection like I just had now. I am during my second trimester. How can I avoid getting it again?

A. drink more cranberry juice,its 100% natural, and wont harm the baby in anyway.

Q. can a bladder infection affect male's ability to have sex?

A. I haven't heard about such an association However, this is only general statement, so if you have any concerns you may want to consult a doctor.

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