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bladderA membranous sac that serves as a reservoir for urine. It is fed via a ureter from each kidney, and empties urine via the urethra. It is lined by a specialised layer of epithelium (the urothelium) and is surrounded by two thick layers of smooth muscle.
Superior and inferior vesical arteries, umbilical artery, vaginal artery.
Vesical venous plexus.
Vesical nervous plexus.
menopauseChange of life, climacteric, 'time of life' Gynecology The cessation of menstrual activity due to failure to form ovarian follicles, which normally occurs age 45–50 Clinical Menstrual irregularity, vasomotor instability, 'hot flashes', irritability or psychosis, ↑ weight, painful breasts, dyspareunia, ↑/↓ libido, atrophy of urogenital epithelium and skin, ASHD, MI, strokes and osteoporosis–which can be lessened by HRT. See Estrogen replacement therapy, Hot flashes, Male menopause, Premature ovarian failure, Premature menopause. Cf Menarche.
bladderSee URINARY BLADDER.
bladdera hollow muscular bag situated in the lower abdominal cavity of mammals serving as a reservoir for urine from the kidneys. The bladder is composed of an internal epithelium surrounded by a coat of smooth muscle running in both circular and longitudinal directions, contraction of which causes complete collapse of the bag-like shape. The flow of urine down the URETERS from kidneys to the bladder is continuous, the amount depending on body fluid levels. When the bladder is empty the opening to the outside is closed by an internal SPHINCTER of smooth muscle which, like the bladder muscle, is controlled by the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. When full, the internal sphincter relaxes under nervous control and urine enters the URETHRA (the duct to the outside), but is prevented from being voided by contraction of an external sphincter of striated muscle. Regulation of the sphincter (and thus or urine release or ‘micturition’) is under voluntary nervous control.
Patient discussion about bladder
Q. What is involved in Gall Bladder surgery?
Q. How to prevent getting a bladder infection? I am worried about getting another bladder infection like I just had now. I am during my second trimester. How can I avoid getting it again?
Q. can a bladder infection affect male's ability to have sex?
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