black death


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death

 [deth]
the cessation of all physical and chemical processes that invariably occurs in all living organisms. (See also dying.) There is at present no standardized diagnosis of clinical death or precise definition of human death. The most widely known and commonly accepted means of determining death evolved from several medical conferences held in the late 1960s for the purpose of defining irreversible coma or nonfunctioning brain as a new criterion for death. The indications of deep irreversible coma (or brain death) are (1) absolute unresponsiveness to externally applied stimuli; (2) cessation of movement and breathing, including no spontaneous breathing for three minutes after an artificial respirator has been turned off; and (3) complete absence of cephalic reflexes. The pupils of the eyes must be dilated and unresponsive to direct light.

Use of the electroencephalogram is also recommended as being of value in confirmation of irreversible coma or death. If there is a flat electroencephalographic reading at the time of apparent death and a second flat reading 24 hours later, then the patient may be declared dead.

There are two exceptions to the above criteria. These are in regard to patients exhibiting marked hypothermia (body temperature below 32.2°C), and those suffering from severe central nervous system depression as a result of drug overdose.

It is recognized that the above criteria are limited in that the notion of irreversibility is not readily agreed upon and may take on new meaning as medical technology advances. The criteria are especially helpful as complements to the traditional criteria of absence of heart beat and lack of spontaneous respiration as indications of death.

In 1981, a Presidential Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research strongly recommended that all of the United States recognize the cessation of brain function as a definition of death, even in cases in which life-support systems could maintain respiratory and circulatory functions by artificial means.
activation-induced cell death (AICD) recognition and deletion of T lymphocytes that have been activated and so induced to proliferate. T lymphocytes are activated when a foreign agent is perceived, and AICD thereby prevents them from overgrowth. It is particularly important for regulation of lymphocytes that recognize self antigens.
black death bubonic plague; see plague.
brain death (cerebral death) see brain death.
clinical death the absence of heart beat (no pulse can be felt) and cessation of breathing.
cot death (crib death) sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
programmed cell death the theory that particular cells are programmed to die at specific sites and at specific stages of development.

black death

term applied to the worldwide epidemic of the 14th-century, of which some 60 million people are thought to have died; descriptions indicate that it was bubonic, septocemic, and pneumonic plague.

Black Death

n.
An outbreak of virulent plague, especially its bubonic form, that killed large numbers of people throughout Europe and much of Asia in the 14th century.

black death

black plague

The black plague arrived with the Tartars in Sicily in late 1347, and reached Paris by the following winter; within 3–4 years of its debut, it had killed 25 million, 30% to 60% of Europe’s population at the time.  Yersinia pestis infection of mammalian hosts is attributed to suppression and avoidance of the host’s immune defences—e.g., phagocytosis and antibody production.

black death

Black plague. See Plague.

black death

(blak deth)
Term applied to the worldwide epidemic of the 14th century, during which some 60 million people are said to have died; the descriptions indicate that it was caused by Yersinia pestis.
See also: plague (2)

black death

The bubonic PLAGUE that devastated parts of Europe and Asia around 1350 and recurred at intervals for 300 years until the pandemic of 1664–5.

Black Death

a plague caused by the BACTERIUM Yersinia pestis. The DISEASE affects RODENTS, but can spread to man, being transmitted by the bite of the rat FLEA. In man there are three different forms of the disease: bubonic plague, primary septicaemic plague and primary pneumonic plague. In the 14th century there was an outbreak of the bubonic plague in Europe that, within just four years, wiped out about one third of the population. Bubonic plague takes its name from the buboes, swellings that develop in the lymph glands in the armpits, neck and groin of the victim. After a high FEVER, haemorrhaging occurs and the skin turns black. Many victims die within a week. Once the LUNGS become infected the disease can be passed from person to person as pneumonic plague.

black death

see plague.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Black Death struck around 800 years later with similar force, killing 50 million Europeans between 1347 and 1351.
The Black Death plowed with confidence across the hardwood sea.
But scientists say that modern antibiotics make a global outbreak like the Black Death unlikely.
Validation of inverse seasonal peak mortality in medieval plagues, including the Black Death, in comparison to modern Yersinia pestis-variant diseases.
At the end of the book a section of Black Death Facts expands on the information contained in the story and goes into a little more detail about Black Death in Europe.
Black death was supposedly caused by rats but a recent book, researched by doctors via old records, suggests the problem was actually haemorrhaging plague.
Indeed, Byrne for Greenwood Press The Black Death (2004) with a large measure of success, and the same publisher has commissioned him to recast this historical event for its "Daily Life Through History" Series.
The Black Death, a bacterial epidemic that wiped out more than 1 in 3 Europeans from 1347 to 1351, was not an equal-opportunity destroyer.
Flynn takes us much further back, to the currently popular era of the Black Death 600 years in the past but both afford us an arresting revision of many contemporary assumptions about human nature.
Known as the Black Death, the bubonic plague pandemic that ravaged the Medieval Muslim and Christian worlds affected individuals at all levels of society.
Was Black Death responsible for the destruction of the feudal system?
A pandemic on the scale of the Black Death could have a quite favorable impact on the region's superinflated housing prices, making it possible for survivors to purchase the nice little two-bedroom home they can't get their hands on now.