Kaolinite is also hydrophobic and could therefore easily adsorb hydrophobic organic molecules, such as bixin
In this respect, the aim of this study was to dry annatto seed powder in the sun, with and without the oil layer, resulting from bixin
extraction, to fit different mathematical models to experimental data and to calculate effective moisture diffusivity of the samples.
Moreover, it can provide valuable dyeing materials such as yellow (orellin) and red (bixin
) substances, with the latter constituting a crystallized active ingredient.
Determination of the contents of bixin
in seeds of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) under different temperatures.
Microwave facilitated extraction of bixin
from Bixa orellana and it's in-vitro antioxidant activity.
, polyphenols and flavonoids have been reported to protect mice against the radiation-induced damage in different study systems (Redpath et al., 1982; Sarma and Kesavan, 1993; Abraham et al.
The hydrocarbon carotenoids, lycopene and carotene, and the xanthophylls or oxygen-containing carotenoids, bixin
(annatto), capxanthin (paprika and red bell peppers), lutein (marigold) and zeaxanthin (corn), all demonstrate significant antioxidant properties.
In recent years, annatto, rich in two carotenoids including bixin
and norbixin, has witnessing growing demand from dairy products, biscuits, flour, snacks, rice, cakes, meat, and soft drinks.
Ingrenat specialises in the research and development, production, and sales and marketing of natural extracts from plants which include, among others, paprika rosemary, bixin
, alfalfa and more which deliver taste, color, and antioxidant activity solutions for the food industry.
This pigment, which is known as annatto (E160b), contains approximately 80% bixin
(BIX; Figure 1(a)), an unusual lipid-soluble carotenoid that has a free carboxyl and an esterified carboxyl end group .
Among the carotenoids, stands out bixin
, obtained from the annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L.), representing 80% of the whole carotenoid in the plant, whose dyestuff is largely used in the food industry.
Theresiamma, K.C., George, J., Kuttan, R.: Protective effect of curcumin, ellagic acid and bixin
on radiation induced toxicity.