sclerochronology and geochemistry' by Schone & Surge (2012).
The very low levels of the heavy metals copper and zinc in mussel pallial fluid, however, suggest that they have a less important role as anti-bacterial agents in mussels than in oysters and support the conclusion that antimicrobial factors, in addition to lysozyme and heavy metals, are involved in the immune response of this bivalve
. These results underscore the need to develop a detailed, comparative approach in the study of bivalve
defensive tactics to fully understand the complexity and variety of immune responses that have evolved in these invertebrates.
melanogaster, and shell matrix proteins in bivalves
. Immunodetection was not performed for the aforementioned bivalve
ECM components because specific antibodies were lacking for them, and the bivalve
larvae were small and difficult to cultivate.
Nor would the pattern of over- and underrepresentation of bivalve
species at different collection sites support prey selection by oyster drills or moon snails.
(2010) who studied the biology and ecology of the bivalve
ARS scientists are looking at the impact of bivalve
shellfish aquaculture on the environment.
declines are in contrast to the previous three decades (1950-80), when the combined landings of the same bivalves
were much higher and the trend in each of their annual landings was nearly level, decade by decade.
After poring over more than 62,000 records of where marine bivalve
species are found, the researchers were able to establish patterns that they used to estimate their number living in 18 different geographic regions.
molluscs have been considered as a potential biomonitor for metallic contamination in marine ecosystems .
The calcium carbonate crystalline phase in bivalve
shells normally is either aragonite or calcite; vaterite has also been found, but seemingly only in pathological conditions (reviewed in Spann et al., 2010).
A small hand shovel or rake can aid in your pursuit of these tasty bivalves
, but if you don't have either, your hands and feet will work just fine.