bivalent antibody

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bi·va·lent an·ti·bod·y

antibody that causes a visible reaction with specific antigen as in agglutination, precipitation, and so on; so-called because according to the "lattice theory" aggregation occurs when the antibody molecule has two or more binding sites that can crosslink one antigen particle to another; probably a characteristic of the class of immunoglobulin.
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injection of the human bivalent antibody fragment [sup.124]I-AbD19384.
It is commonly believed that latex agglutination immunoassay reactions proceed through linking of particles by the two arms of the bivalent antibody, and this is certainly true for some assays.
The reaction between a polyvalent antigen and a bivalent antibody is generally assumed to lead to aggregate formation through bridging by the antibody between antigen molecules, the amount of light scattering reflecting aggregate formation and the amount of antigen and (or) antibody present.
These authors and many others subsequently have interpreted these findings with a proposed mechanism of immunospecific bridging between particles by the bivalent antibody molecules.