bivalent


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bivalent

 [bi-va´lent]
the structure formed by a pair of homologous chromosomes joined by synapsis along their length during the zygotene and pachytene stages of the first meiotic prophase. After each homologous chromosome splits into two sister chromatids during the pachytene stage, this structure is called a tetrad.

bi·va·lent

(bī-vā'lent, biv'ă-lent),
1. Having a combining power (valence) of 2.
See also: tetrad. Synonym(s): divalent
2. In cytology, a structure consisting of two paired homologous chromosomes, each split into two sister chromatids, as seen during the pachytene stage of prophase in meiosis.
See also: tetrad.

bivalent

/bi·va·lent/ (bi-va´lent)
2. the structure formed by a pair of homologous chromosomes by synapsis along their length during the zygotene and pachytene stages of the first meiotic prophase.

bivalent

(bī-vā′lənt)
adj.
1. Genetics Relating to or being a pair of homologous, side-by-side chromosomes, especially during meiosis; double.
2. Chemistry & Immunology Divalent.

bi·va′lence, bi·va′len·cy n.

bivalent

[bīvā′lənt]
Etymology: L, bis + valere, to be powerful
1 See divalent. (in genetics) a pair of synapsed homologous chromosomes that are attached to each other by chiasmata during the early first meiotic prophase of gametogenesis. The structure serves as the basis for the tetrads from which gametes are produced during the two meiotic divisions.
2 See valence, def. 1. bivalence, n.

bivalent

Chemistry
adjective Referring to an atom with 2 valent states.
 
Genetics
adjective Referring to either of 2 homologous chromosomes in synapsis during meiosis.

bi·va·lent

(bī-vā'lĕnt)
1. Having a combining power (valence) of two.
Synonym(s): divalent.
2. cytology a structure consisting of two paired homologous chromosomes, each split into two sister chromatids, as seen during the pachytene stage of prophase in meiosis.

bivalent

(of a pair of homologous CHROMOSOMES) being paired during prophase I of MEIOSIS. Compare MULTIVALENT.

bivalent

1. having a valence of two.
2. denoting homologous chromosomes associated in pairs during the first meiotic prophase.
References in periodicals archive ?
Fab Dimerization: producing bivalent or bispecific Fab antibodies in miniantibody format.
In embryonic stem cells, histone ubiquitination stabilizes the presence of an enzyme called RNA polymerase II (which is required for gene expression) at bivalent chromatin domains and is crucial for maintaining the pluripotent state of undifferentiated cells (Ku et al.
In fact, traditional bivalent probability (within which I include the doctrine of random chance as well as the much newer subjective probability) appears as a special case in this theory.
As a bivalent DTI, bivalirudin is a short synthetic peptide that consists of the N-terminal and C-terminal active peptide domains of hirudin joined by a linker.
The infants received either the monovalent, bivalent or trivalent vaccines in two doses - once at birth, the other after 30 days.
Her main research interest is in cervical cancer prevention in low-resource settings and she is currently conducting a randomised trial of the safety and immunogenicity of the bivalent vaccine in HIV-positive women.
The bivalent vaccine will help control both P1 and P3 strains.
A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the bivalent killed, whole-cell, oral cholera vaccine in adults and children in a cholera endemic area in Kolkata, India.
The bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), recommended by the Advisory
Al Wissam embraces the bivalent concept of day and night -- a breezy fragrance embodied in a white bottle representing a fresh start of a successful day positioned as a day fragrance.
The majority of a federal advisory panel agreed that the data on a recombinant bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine indicate that the vaccine is safe and effective in preventing cervical cancer and certain precancerous or dysplastic lesions caused by HPV types 16 and 18 in girls and women aged 10-25 years.
In diplotene--metaphase I plates (n = 19), we observed at least one bivalent with two chiasmata and maximally four bivalents with two chiasmata.