In fact, traditional probability built on bivalence
appears as a special case in this theory.
The sui generis bivalence
, "decided" and "undecided," is also revealed, all the principles being apt to be rephrased in the context of this value spectrum.
However, the assertion of mutual inhibition and, thus, the rarity of bivalence
, are empirically contestable.
Threads of many-valued logic have troubled thinkers since before Aristotle embraced bivalence
, (12) even if their thoughts found more receptive soil in the East than in the West.
Ademollo addresses a tension in De interpretatione, namely: 'how is Aristotle's statement of bivalence
in chapter 4 to be reconciled with his denial of (unrestricted) bivalence
in chapter 9', in which the problem of future contingents is famously discussed.
In terms of logic, the law of bivalence
is denied: "In a fictional world it will normally be the case for each character and some relevantly applicable predicate 'F' that neither 'Fa' nor ~ 'Fa' is true" (Heintz 91).
In ordinary circumstances, that is, we can apply what logicians call the principle of bivalence
to objects and actions.
Viewing phenomenologically, Margolis holds, "All that world toe needed would be to abandon the standard conviction that bivalence
can not be coherently breached and that reality must possess determinate unchanging structures." Along that line artworks, like persons, actions and sentences, are not fully determinate, but are interpretively determinable in intentional ways; and intentional properties are not as determinate as physical objects.
But, what is much more important is that bivalence
is a major obstacle to the solution of such basic AI problems as commonsense reasoning and knowledge representation (McCarthy 1990, Davis 1990, Sowa 1991, 1999, Yager 1991, Sun 1994, Dubois and Prade 1996), nonstereotypical summarization (Mani and Mayberry 1999), unrestricted question answering, (Lehnert 1978), and natural language computation (Biermann and Ballard 1980).
Consider the bivalence
of the following: a courageously conservative academic, doomed by reason of his sexual adventurism, asks, before dying, an old novelist friend to write up the story of his life.
He bases his concept of polychrony, or "fuzzy temporality," on recent research on fuzzy logic, which "operates on the basis of multivalence as opposed to bivalence