bismuth subsalicylate


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to bismuth subsalicylate: metronidazole, Pepto Bismol

bismuth

 (Bi) [biz´muth]
a chemical element, atomic number 83, atomic weight 208.980. (See Appendix 6.) Its salts have been used for their antacid and mild astringent properties in relief of inflammatory diseases of the stomach and intestines, and as topical protectants in skin and anorectal disorders.
bismuth subsalicylate a bismuth salt of salicylic acid, administered orally in the treatment of diarrhea and gastric distress, including nausea, indigestion, and heartburn.

bismuth subsalicylate

Bismatrol, Bismatrol Maximum Strength, Diotame, Kao-Tin, Kaopectate, Kaopectate Extra Strength, Kapectolin, Maalox Total Stomach Relief, Pepto-Bismol, Pepto-Bismol Bismuth Maximum Strength, Pink Bismuth

Pharmacologic class: Adsorbent

Therapeutic class: Antidiarrheal, antibiotic, antiulcer drug

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Promotes intestinal adsorption of fluids and electrolytes and decreases synthesis of intestinal prostaglandins. Adsorbent action removes irritants from stomach and soothes irritated bowel lining. Also shows antibacterial activity to eradicate Helicobacter pylori.

Availability

Liquid: 130 mg/15 ml, 262 mg/15 ml, 525 mg/15 ml (maximum strength)

Tablets: 262 mg

Tablets (chewable): 262 mg, 300 mg

Indications and dosages

Adjunctive therapy for mild to moderate diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramping, heartburn, and indigestion accompanying diarrheal illnesses

Adults: Two tablets or 30 ml P.O. (15 ml of maximum strength) q 30 minutes, or two tablets or 60 ml (30 ml of extra/maximum strength) q 60 minutes as needed. Don't exceed 4.2 g in 24 hours.

Children ages 9 to 12: One tablet or 15 ml P.O. (7.5 ml of maximum strength) q 30 to 60 minutes. Don't exceed 2.1 g in 24 hours.

Children ages 6 to 9: 10 ml (5 ml of maximum strength) P.O. q 30 to 60 minutes. Don't exceed 1.4 g in 24 hours.

Children ages 3 to 6: 5 ml (2.5 ml of maximum strength) P.O. q 30 to 60 minutes. Don't exceed 704 mg in 24 hours.

Ulcer disease caused by H. pylori

Adults: Two tablets or 30 ml P.O. q.i.d. (15 ml of maximum strength)

Off-label uses

• Chronic infantile diarrhea

• Norwalk virus-induced gastroenteritis

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to aspirin

• Elderly patients with fecal impaction

• Children or adolescents during or after recovery from chickenpox or flulike illness

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• diabetes mellitus, gout

• patients taking concurrent aspirin

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• infants.

Administration

• Know that tablets should be chewed or dissolved in mouth before swallowing.

• Be aware that drug is usually given with antibiotics (such as tetracycline or amoxicillin) when prescribed for ulcer disease.

Adverse reactions

EENT: tinnitus, tongue discoloration

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, gray-black stools, fecal impaction

Respiratory: tachypnea

Other: salicylate toxicity

Interactions

Drug-drug. Aspirin, other salicylates: salicylate toxicity

Corticosteroids, probenecid (large doses),

sulfinpyrazone: decreased bismuth efficacy

Enoxacin: decreased enoxacin bioavailability

Methotrexate: increased risk of bismuth toxicity

Tetracycline: decreased tetracycline absorption

Drug-diagnostic tests. Radiologic GI tract examination: test interference

Patient monitoring

• Monitor fluid intake and electrolyte levels.

• Monitor stool frequency and appearance.

• Assess infants and debilitated patients for fecal impaction.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to chew tablets or dissolve them in mouth before swallowing.

• Inform patient that drug may turn stools gray-black temporarily.

• Tell patient to notify prescriber if he has diarrhea with fever for more than 48 hours.

• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

bismuth subsalicylate

(sŭb-sə-lĭs′ə-lāt′, -lĭt, -săl′ĭ-sĭl′ĭt)
n.
A salicylate used to treat nausea, indigestion, and diarrhea.

bismuth subsalicylate

An insoluble basic salt containing 58% bismuth by weight, which is used to manage GI tract disease (diarrhoea, heartburn, indigestion, nausea), and Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease.

Adverse effects
Black tongue, black stool, salicylism (i.e., contraindicated in children, given the risk of Reye syndrome).

Mechanism of action
Unknown, possibly antimicrobial—prevents attachment of microorganisms, inactivates enterotoxins, inhibits rotavirus replication, antisecretory, anti-inflammatory; in children with watery diarrhoea, BS therapy (100–150 mg/kg/d), reduces stool output, reduces oral rehydration requirements and reduces the need for hospitalisation
References in periodicals archive ?
Worldwide efficacy of bismuth subsalicylate in the treatment of travelers' diarrhea.
Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) in Helicobacter pylori-Positive Dyspepsia Subjects Before and 8 Weeks after Treatment with BMT and LAC Before Treatment After Treatment Study Groups (Mean GSRS) (Mean GSRS) P value BMT 1.62 1.13 0.02 LAC 1.67 1.24 0.01 All patients 1.65 1.18 0.0008 BMT = bismuth subsalicylate, metronidazole 250-mg tablet, tetracycline 500-mg tablet plus cimetidine 400-mg tablet LAC = lansoprazole 30-mg tablet, amoxicillin 1000-mg tablet, and clarithromycin 500-mg tablet Table 2.
The 2-week, triple therapy combines two antibiotics, tetracycline (e.g., Achromycin[R] or Sumycin[R]) and metronidazole (e.g., Flagyl[R]) with bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol[R]).
Bismuth subsalicylate preparation (1 oz every 30 minutes for eight doses) decreased the rate of stooling by one-half in a study of travelers with diarrhea when compared with a placebo group.
Bismuth subsalicylate, such as Pepto-Bistool and Kaopectate, should not be used in pregnancy or lactation since metabolism releases salicylate.
Miscellaneous Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto Inhibit pepsin, form Bismol), misoprostol barrier to protect (Cytotec), sucralfate stomach lining.
Bismuth subsalicylate, such as Pepto-Bismol and Kaopectate, should not be used in pregnancy or lactation since metabolism releases salicylate.
Two well-designed South American studies (1,2) both found that bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) at a dose of 1.14 mL/kg every 4 hours decreased stool output and duration of symptoms.
pylori infection consists of 1-2 weeks of one or two effective antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, tetracycline (not to be used for children [is less than] 12 yrs.), metronidazole, or clarithromycin, plus either ranitidine bismuth citrate, bismuth subsalicylate, or a proton pump inhibitor.
Late last year it rolled out Helidac Therapy, an ulcer medication that combines bismuth subsalicylate, metronidazole and tetracycline hydrochloride.
It appears that bismuth subsalicylate is safe and effective when treating diarrhea with oral hydration in infants.
Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto Bismol) may decrease the chances of getting TD, but carrying enough in one's luggage may not seem worth the effort.