Anemia is known to be associated with multiple factors, such as poor socioeconomic status, high parity, short birth interval
, poor diet both in quantity and quality, lack of health and nutrition awareness, and a high rate of infectious diseases and parasitic infestations.
of women 217 707 186 521 Mean length of open 26.1 25.1 27.9 24.3 (d) birth interval
(mos.) [double dagger][double dagger] No.
(4.) Kozuki, N and Walker, N: 2013: Exploring the association between short/long preceding birth intervals
and child mortality: Using reference birth interval
children of the same mother as comparison.
The variables are age in months (0-59) and gender of child, the child's birth order and birth interval
, mother's age and her education, region, province, sources of drinking water, type of sanitation, provision of electricity and television in the house.
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data from 18 developing countries in Asia, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East showed that a birth interval
of three-years improve the survival status of under five children (10).
(1985) argue that shorter birth interval
and high risks of child death are intertwined in that shorter birth interval
leads to high risk of death, and higher risk of death leads to shorter birth interval
It is evident from literature that adequate use of PNC services could be achieved by enhancing women's freedom of movement and autonomy through education and by providing them adequate knowledge of healthcare options.4-6 Due to poverty, women have inadequate number of visits and low access to quality PNC services.7,8 The type of the profession of the partner also matters in determining the quantity of PNC services use.9 Educated partners have found to be more aware about the complications that can arise during pregnancy.10 Longer birth intervals
have been found to be related to less obstetric adversities and greater number of PNC visits.11 Planned pregnancy positively affects the likelihood of making adequate number of visits for PNC services.12
Piglets that died before day 7 of life had a lower birth interval
(9.5 vs 14.9 min, p = 0.005) and were reared in litters with a higher LS (13.7 vs 13.2 piglets, p = 0.038).
Gunaverdana et al  in a longitudinal, population-based cohort, the risk of schizophrenia increased by 150% in those births following a birth interval
less than 6 months.
The result in multivariable logistic regression showed that the odds of getting anemia in pregnant mothers were higher among mothers whose birth interval
was less than two years (AOR=4.78,95% CI:2.68 -9.64).
The education should highlight some significant maternal factors such as appropriate birth interval
for pregnancies and the need to manage properly all infectious and noninfectious diseases.
But adolescent fertility is 23 percent high for those who have attained above secondary education 'Relation between high education and adolescent fertility may be positive in the absence of contraception because better educated women may breastfeed less, have low rates of infant/child mortality so birth interval
between kids shrinks directly contributing to supply of children (Economics and Statistics Administration, USA Dept.