birth interval

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birth interval

The time elapsed between a full-term pregnancy and the termination or completion of the next pregnancy. Parents manage the interval between births for personal, psychological, or economic reasons. Intervals of less than 17 months or more than 5 years increase the risk of certain maternal and child health problems, such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, low birth weight, preterm birth, and maternal mortality.
Synonym: birth spacinginterpregnancy interval
See also: interval


a coming into being; the act or process of being born. See also parturition.

birth canal
the canal through which the fetus passes in birth; comprising the uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva.
birth cohort
see cohort.
birth control
a term rarely used in dealing with animals. Instead see population control, contraception.
birth defects
see congenital defects.
birth difficulties
birth injury
occurs to the fetus during birth. Includes rib fracture and meningeal hemorrhage.
birth interval
the interval between succeeding parturitions. See also calving interval.
multiple birth
the birth of two or more offspring produced in the same gestation period.
birth order
the chronological order of births in a multiple birth. May have significance in causing stillbirths if the intervals between births are prolonged because of inertia.
premature birth
expulsion of the fetus from the uterus before termination of the normal gestation period, but after independent existence has become a possibility. In humans prematurity is defined as a pregnancy of less than 37 weeks in a pregnancy normally lasting 40 weeks.
birth process
comprises maturation of the fetus, relaxation of the bony pelvis and associated ligaments, softening and relaxation of the cervix, vagina, vulva and perineum, correct disposition of the fetus, contractions of the uterine myometrium and finally the only component under voluntary control, contraction of the abdominal muscles.
birth rate
the number of births during one year for the total population (crude birth rate), for the female population (refined birth rate), or for the female population of reproductive age (true birth rate). Not a term much used with reference to animals. See calving, lambing rate.
birth size
stature, including height at withers, crown to tail head length at birth.
birth weight
the weight at birth. A significant determinant of survival in any species and of the occurrence of dystocia. See also prolonged gestation.
References in periodicals archive ?
In model-3 when the batch of demographic variables are added to socioeconomic and environmental variables, older maternal age, shorter previous birth interval, lower birth order, and the previous sibling death in a family all have a positive significant effect on post-neonatal mortality.
iii) The shorter her birth intervals (LCBI) and duration of breast-feeding practice (MOBF).
Birth spacing by age at marriage revealed that urban females tend to have shorter median birth intervals at higher ages at marriage.
Many older women, although their fecundity might be ebbing, sought far wider birth intervals than child health alone seemed to demand.
For Models 2 and 2a, we repeat the general analysis of our first and second models but exclude first (live) births and include the preceding birth interval (i.
6) and among those who had had a birth interval of less than two years (-0.
Birth interval refers to the number of years or months between successive pregnancies.
This also has implications for maternal health, as lengthening the birth interval helps avoid the draining of maternal nutritional reserves associated with short-spaced, repeated pregnancies (Vitzthum 1994).
The relation of closed birth interval to the sex of the preceding child and the sexual orientation of the succeeding child.
Moreover, most studies have not controlled for reverse causality: Some couples may seek a new pregnancy in response to a child's death, so that the short birth interval is the result of rather than the cause of mortality.
Children in the most disadvantaged UADI quintile (class V) most frequently were male, were of high birth order and medium birth interval (order [greater than or equal to] 5 and 24-47 months), and had mothers who were younger (24-28 years of age), married, and uneducated, worked as clerical/sales/services/skilled manual employees, and were in the poorest household wealth quintile.
The risk for cesarean delivery was 70% higher in the weight-gain group after adjustment for the effects of confounding factors including maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, duration of birth interval, weight gain during each pregnancy, smoking, and year of birth, wrote Dr.