biosynthetic pathway


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pathway

 [path´wa]
a course usually followed. In neurology, the nerve structures through which a sensory impression is conducted to the cerebral cortex (afferent pathway), or through which an impulse passes from the brain to the skeletal musculature (efferent pathway). Also used alone to indicate a sequence of reactions that convert one biological material to another (metabolic pathway).
accessory pathway (accessory conduction pathway) extra muscle tissue between the atrium and ventricle that bypasses all or part of the normal conduction system. When the ventricles are activated prematurely via this pathway, initial forces are slow, producing the delta wave of wolff-parkinson-white syndrome, and preexcitation is said to exist; the delta wave causes the PR interval to shorten and the QRS interval to broaden.
alternative complement pathway see complement.
amphibolic pathway a group of metabolic reactions with a dual function, providing small metabolites for further catabolism to end products or for use as precursors in synthetic, anabolic reactions. The tricarboxylic acid cycle is an example. See also anabolism and catabolism.
biosynthetic pathway the sequence of enzymatic steps in the synthesis of a specific end-product in a living organism.
classical complement pathway see complement.
common pathway of coagulation the steps in the mechanism of coagulation (see clotting) from the activation of factor x through the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. See also intrinsic pathway of coagulation and extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
concealed accessory pathway an accessory pathway that has only retrograde conduction; thus its PR and QRS complexes are normal on the electrocardiogram, but there is a tendency to develop premature supraventricular tachycardia. If atrial fibrillation develops, conduction will proceed across the atrioventricular node.
Embden-Meyerhof pathway the series of enzymatic reactions in the anaerobic conversion of glucose to lactic acid, resulting in energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
extrinsic pathway of coagulation the mechanism that produces fibrin following tissue injury, beginning with formation of an activated complex between tissue factor and factor vii and leading to activation of factor x, which induces the reactions of the common pathway of coagulation. See also intrinsic pathway of coagulation.
final common pathway
1. the motor neurons by which nerve impulses from many central sources pass to a muscle or gland in the periphery.
2. any mechanism by which several independent effects exert a common influence.
intrinsic pathway of coagulation a sequence of reactions leading to fibrin formation, beginning with the contact activation of factor xii. This is followed by the sequential activation of factors xi and ix, which results in the activation of factor x. Activated factor X (factor Xa) initiates the common pathway of coagulation. See also extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
pentose phosphate pathway a pathway of hexose oxidation in which glucose-6-phosphate undergoes two successive oxidations by NADP, the final forming a pentose phosphate.

biosynthetic pathway

The chemical and metabolic events that lead to the formation of substances in the body.
See also: pathway
References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: Figure 1: (a) A schematic presentation of general flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Multiple arrows indicate two or more steps in the pathway, and flavonoids that analyzed in this study are highlighted in red.
Oxylipin synthesis via different biosynthetic pathways, COX, 5-LOX, 12/15-LOX, and CYP from their corresponding precursor fatty acids, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, dihomo-[gamma]-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid (Zivkovic et al.
Thus, the phenolic acid, lignin, and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways share a common core phenylpropanoid pathway in their early steps.
(2010) by using high throughput sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis obtained more than 27,000 Unigenes and 16 enzymes genes in the biosynthetic pathway of the glycyrrhizic acid [12].
Strategy of Fermentation Regulation Based on the Biosynthetic Pathway. In the biosynthetic pathway of pyrimidine nucleosides, ribose and uracil are the two products catalyzed by uridine nucleosidase.
Kaul, "Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase: a key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and potential molecular target for drug development," New Biotechnology, vol.
Cell lines with copy number gains (BT-20, MDA-MB-468, and HCC70) experienced increased flux through the serine biosynthetic pathway (Figure 2) relative to those without MDA-MB-231, MCF7, and MCFC10A.
Discussion of the "control" or "regulation" of biosynthetic pathways normally focuses on the question of which individual enzymes are controlling the flux in a pathway [150,151].
Because BH4 is the end product of the biosynthetic pathway, it must be the case that the increased BH2 and biopterin reflect an increase in BH4 biosynthesis.
japonica genes, and demonstrated the high level of flexibility of the IQA biosynthetic pathway towards its genetic alteration.
The uvrD mutant does appear to have altered levels of mRNA encoding proteins of the coronatine biosynthetic pathway, the type III secretion system and its effectors.