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1. a measure of worth or efficiency.
2. a quantitative measurement of the activity, concentration, or some other quality of something.
3. an operational belief; an ideal, custom, institution of a society toward which the members of the group have an affective regard; any object or quality desirable as a means or as an end in itself. In exchange theory, the benefits received through an exchange minus the price paid in return.
biological value the quality of a protein expressed on a scale of 1 to 100; the higher the number the better the quality.
cultural v's prevailing and persistent guides influencing the thinking and action of members of a cultural group. Values direct one's perceptions of others and serve as the basis for a person's opinions. Individuals belonging to groups with different cultural values may clash on health and illness behavior.
normal v's the range in concentration of specific substances found in normal healthy tissues, secretions, and so on.
P value (p value) the probability of obtaining by chance a result at least as extreme as that observed, even when the null hypothesis is true and no real difference exists; when P < 0.05 the sample results are usually deemed significant at a statistically important level and the null hypothesis rejected. See also Type I error.
reference v's a set of values of a quantity measured in the clinical laboratory that characterize a specified population in a defined state of health. The values obtained from a statistical sample are used to establish a reference interval that covers 95 per cent of the values of the healthy general population or of specific subpopulations differing in age and sex. These concepts were originally and are still widely referred to as “normal values” and the “normal range,” but the use of these terms is now discouraged because of their implication that values falling outside of the reference interval are “abnormal” or “unhealthy,” which has led to much confusion. It must be remembered that, by definition, 5 per cent of healthy individuals fall outside of the reference interval.
biological valueA measure of a food’s protein quality compared to that of egg protein, which has the maximum biological value of 0.9–1.00 (defined as the ratio of nitrogen retained/nitrogen lost in a single source). Cartilage has the lowest biological value of all food proteins.
biological value (of protein)
A measure of the efficiency of a consumed protein, esp. its nitrogen or amino acid content.
1. pertaining to biology.
2. a medicinal preparation made from living organisms and their products; these include serums, vaccines, etc.
the physiological mechanisms which govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological and behavioral phenomena in living organisms. See also biological rhythm.
control of a parasite by making use of its natural enemies, especially other pests. The target may also be a vector or a reservoir for infection.
usually comprise a list of vital statistics about an animal or plant species, recording such things as preferred growth medium, temperature and humidity and details of the internal milieu including blood pH, normal blood electrolytes and the like.
includes the influence of all biological factors such as warmth, moisture and humidity, but also the plant ecosystem in which the animal lives and the associated populations of vertebrates and invertebrates that may compete for food and space, and may also act as reservoirs for infectious diseases.
are used for the treatment of sewage effluent. They comprise a column of stones or plastic pieces which become covered with bacteria which degrade the organic matter in the effluent.
is an estimate of the biological importance of a statistical or apparent causal association between two variables, e.g. feed supply and the occurrence of bovine acetonemia. The estimation takes into account the possible biological relationship between the two; an estimate of statistical significance would take only the mathematical relationship into account.
relationship between the amount of nutrient absorbed and the amount utilized by the body. Expressed as a percentage. Called also BV.