(21) Average height therefore is a measure of the biological standard
of living that reflects in a way the health dimension of human welfare.
Noting that the expansion of the market can be a two-edged sword, yielding both higher incomes but also a negative externality, Cuff (humanities, Westminster College) examines the effect of market integration and nascent industrialization on the biological standard
of living of antebellum Pennsylvanians, assessed largely through height.
Most biological standards
are currently defined according to arbitrarily assigned biological activity units (IU), a best-fit approach to the comparison of quantitative measurements for heterogeneous biologicals for which SI traceability would be difficult to achieve.
For bioassay, the Second IRP was replaced with the pituitary-derived bioassay standard, 84/703 [National Institute for Biological Standards
and Control (NIBSC) Std B].
The IL-6 stock solution (100 /,g/L) was prepared by dissolving the lyophilized human recombinant IL-6 international standard, 88/514 (National Institute of Biological Standards
and Controls), in 10 g/L bovine serum albumin, in a 50 mmol/L Tris buffer, pH 7.40, containing 0.5 g/L NaN3 and 9 g/L NaCl, and was kept in aliquots at -20 [degrees]C.
Participants were asked to supply raw data (i.e., dilutions tested and the actual responses) in a standard format for each assay for analysis at the National Institute for Biological Standards
and Control (NIBSC) as described below.