Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) is the method of choice for sorghum transformation as it is a simple, low cost and highly efficient alternative to direct gene delivery methods such as biolistics
Therefore, the success of any cotton improvement programme using gene transfer technological tools such as biolistics
and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation depends on the availability of plant regeneration systems that are genotype-independent, efficient and which do not yield somaclonal variant (Firoozabady et al.
Particle bombardment technology, also known as biological biolistics
or bioballistics, is a nonviral, physical gene delivery method in which target cells are transfected using DNA-coated particles.
First the gene is identified, then cloned, and finally transformed into plants using one of the following three insertion methods: Agrobacterium, biolistics
(particle bombardment), or electroporation, which are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 13 Plant Biotechnology and Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview.
Key words: Zea mays, Biotechnology, Genetic Transformation, Biolistics
, maize rayado fino virus (MRFV).
Other means of gene transfer for GE include biolistics
(where genes are literally shot into plant cells) and a variant, particle discharge (Birch, 1997).
In its early years, biolistics
was actually done with gunpowder-fired shells; now it's powered by pressurized helium.
and his colleagues are also growing new-fangled cassava, but they employ a different technique, biolistics
Whether Agrobacterium or biolistics
is used, successful transgenic plant production is predicated on generating large numbers of independently transformed plants for screening and evaluation.
Transformants were selected on G418 and showed a higher percentage of single copy transgenes (35%) than those obtained by the biolistics
method (17%) and a higher percentage of coexpression of co-transformed unselected genes (98% vs.
1987; Sanford, 1988), biolistics
delivers DNA molecules carried by tiny particles of Au or W into intact cells.
Hygromycin resistance is an effective selectable marker for biolistic
transformation of black spruce (Picea mariana).