sup],, Peritoneal fibrosis usually occurs in response to a variety of insults (including bioincompatible
glucose dialysate fluids, peritonitis, uremic toxins, and chronic inflammation).
Hemodialysis (HD), as one of the therapeutic procedures performed on patients with renal failure, is believed to contribute to chronic inflammation due to exposure of blood to bioincompatible
system causing activation of circulating phagocytes .
16) Cytokine production may be stimulated by contact of the blood with bioincompatible
dialysis membranes, and cytokines have been shown to stimulate the synthesis of HA.
causing reduced excretion of inflammatory cytokines) Infections/inflammatory diseases, including: * Mycobacterium tuberculosis * Chlamydophila pneumoniae * Systemic lupus erythematosus * Rheumatoid arthritis * Underlying malignancies * Diabetes * Periodontitis Intercurrent clinical events * Surgery * Injury Uremic retention Unpure dialysate Bioincompatible
dialysis membranes Access site infections Bacterial infections in thrombosed fistulae or grafts Acidosis Protein-energy malnutrition Source: Yilmaz 2007 Table 3 Risks of Comorbidity and Hospital Admission Associated with Various Hemoglobin Levels and Degrees of Fluctuation Hospital Admission Average Hemoglobin Admission for Infecfion Length of to (Hb) (%) (%) (Days) Low 69.
Baj, "Increased levels of soluble TNF-[alpha] receptors and cellular adhesion molecules in patients undergoing bioincompatible
hemodialysis," American Journal of Nephrology, vol.
Table 1 Factors Associated with an Increase in CRP in Patients on Dialysis * Infection * Surgery * Bioincompatible
membranes * Daily dialysis * Congestive heart failure * Atherosclerosis * Volume overload * Malignancy * Periodontal disease * Inflammation * Uremia * High flux dialysis * Impure dialysate * Type of access (e.
Increased protein catabolism can be related to bioincompatible
membranes secondary to the release of cytokines and inflammatory mediators.
Most patients are affected to some degree by mechanical irritation caused by the dialysis procedure, compounded in some cases by bioincompatible
1996) or other infections, and exposure to bioincompatible
dialysis membranes that causes the immune activation (Lin et al.
The authors found there were a number of bioincompatible
aspects of reuse.