Instead he first explains in detail why IBD patients seem to be so affected by potatoes, explaining how potato lectins impair protein digestion and how the resultant maldigestion increases bioamine
levels in the intestine.
Serotonin (5'-hydroxy tryptamine; 5-HT) is a bioamine
, which is synthesized from L-tryptophan mainly in enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system.
Even though whole body solvent-soaking also can extract cuticular hydrocarbons, internal body lipids, bioamines
, and other exocrine gland secretions that may contaminate the alkaloid extract, they do not interfere with alkaloid analyses.
(17) Some bioamines
are also considered as an indicator of microbial contamination in foods.
In vivo, cardiac-specific overexpression of MAO-A in young mice led to decreased levels of bioamines
(norepinephrine and serotonin) together with increased concentrations of the aldehyde metabolites generated by the MAO-catalyzed amine oxidation .
MAO catalyzes the oxidative deamination of bioamines
such as tyramine, catecholamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain and peripheral tissues; inhibition of MAO activity results in the antidepressant efficacy .
Reference intervals for bioamines
have been published previously [Grouzmann et al.
If these activators bind to mastocytes for a short period of time (from seconds to a few minutes), they lead to rapid degranulation and release bioamines
, proteoglycans, proteases, ATP, TNF-[alpha] and chemokines stored in preformed granules, whereas activations of longer durations lead to the release of newly formed cytokine (TNF-[alpha], IL1[beta], and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), enzymes (tryptase, chymase, carboxypeptidase), lipid mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and platelet-activating factor), and nitric oxide (NO), mediating the recruitment of effector cells, fluid extravasation, and tissue inflammation [30, 31].
2 Generally it stains positive for synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, cytokeratin, chromogranin, and bioamines
, which are characteristic of carcinoid lineage.3,4 However, it does not secrete the active hormones, i.e., serotonin and its by products, typically seen in carcinoid, at least not to the extent to be detectable in systemic circulation or enough to produce carcinoid symptoms.
Chardonnay wines and red wines usually undergo a secondary fermentation called "malolactic fermentation." Winemakers inoculate wines with the bacterium Oenococcus oeni, however, wineries often have sluggish or stuck malolactic fermentations that lead to the production of more than 20 bioamines
. These can cause migraines, hypotension, diarrhea, and so on in sensitive consumers; around 33 per cent of the world's population is sensitive to bioamines
Identification of Hormones Produced by the Neoplasia.--Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms may express normally produced pancreatic hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide), hormones of ectopic origin (gastrin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, adrenocorticotrophic hormone), and bioamines