In terms of the addition of MSD digits m with MAX_ LENGTH bits and the

binary digit b, the C conversion is implemented by using the formula c[i]=C[b[i]][m[i]+1], the subfunction P_trans is implemented by using the formula p[i+1]=P[b[i]][m[i]+1], the subfunction R_trans is implemented by using the formula s[i]=R[-p[i+1]][c[i+1]](i=0, 2, .

In parallel, a unique, longtime effort by the Minnesota Internet Traffic Studies project (Odlyzko, 2009) has assessed the global flow of data through the Internet backbone measured in bandwidth of

binary digits.

The second person was also attached to an EEG amplifier and their PC would pick up the stream of

binary digits and flash an LED lamp at two different frequencies, one for zero and the other one for one.

The mathematical analysis shows that it isn't possible to guarantee that you can learn even one element of a secret--say, one

binary digit of an Internet address--let alone the entire secret.

A microphone picks up the individual's speech that is in analog or wave form, and the speech waves are broken down into patterns of

binary digits by a digital signal processor to represent the vocal sounds of human speech.

Each ASCII character can be represented by 7

binary digits such as 1000001.

After selection of significant DCT, Huffman encoding is performed to convert coefficients into

binary digits.

This implies two steps: the translation of information 1) into

binary digits of hardware capacity, and then 2) into optimally compressed bits.

But there's no way to convert the result into its decimal equivalent without knowing all the

binary digits that come before the one of interest.

Today's 32-bit Intel chips can process 32

binary digits at a time.

Designed and built by Paul Kocher of Cryptography Research in San Francisco and his coworkers, the new code-cracking computer incorporates more than 1,000 integrated-circuit chips specifically configured for checking the strings of 56

binary digits that comprise DES encryption keys.