The mathematical analysis shows that it isn't possible to guarantee that you can learn even one element of a secret--say, one

binary digit of an Internet address--let alone the entire secret.

Each

binary digit, or bit, operates a tiny electronic switch on a computer-chip circuit.

binary digits that are stored on a server or other storage

Designed and built by Paul Kocher of Cryptography Research in San Francisco and his coworkers, the new code-cracking computer incorporates more than 1,000 integrated-circuit chips specifically configured for checking the strings of 56

binary digits that comprise DES encryption keys.

To measure the approximate entropy of the

binary digits of pi, [square root of 2], [square root of 3], and e, Pincus determined how often each of eight blocks of three consecutive digits--000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, and 111--comes up in the first 280,000 digits of the number.

But there's no way to convert these numbers into decimal form without knowing all the

binary digits that come before the string.

He and his coworkers succeeded in creating a potentially useful, efficient linear code based not on

binary digits (0,1) but on quaternary digits (0,1,2,3).

By designating one lobe as 0 and the other as 1, the researchers can capture the trajectory's wanderings as a sequence of

binary digits.

Each of four bases is given a value of either 0 or 1 to generate a string of

binary digits.