4) The estimate by Hilbert and Lopez (2011) of the hardware capacity of merely the digital part of global information storage amounts to 363 exabytes of

binary digits, significantly larger than the IDC estimate.

After selection of significant DCT, Huffman encoding is performed to convert coefficients into

binary digits.

Each ASCII character can be represented by 7

binary digits such as 1000001.

Designed and built by Paul Kocher of Cryptography Research in San Francisco and his coworkers, the new code-cracking computer incorporates more than 1,000 integrated-circuit chips specifically configured for checking the strings of 56

binary digits that comprise DES encryption keys.

To measure the approximate entropy of the

binary digits of pi, [square root of 2], [square root of 3], and e, Pincus determined how often each of eight blocks of three consecutive digits--000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, and 111--comes up in the first 280,000 digits of the number.

He and his coworkers succeeded in creating a potentially useful, efficient linear code based not on

binary digits (0,1) but on quaternary digits (0,1,2,3).

By designating one lobe as 0 and the other as 1, the researchers can capture the trajectory's wanderings as a sequence of

binary digits.

Each of four bases is given a value of either 0 or 1 to generate a string of

binary digits.

Thus, proof checking can be done electronically when the whole procedure is encoded as strings of

binary digits.