Maines, "Purification and characterization of biliverdin
reductase from rat liver," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
While it has been suggested that the blue skeleton of Heliopora originated from biliverdin
IX[alpha] (Rudiger et al., 1968), which occurs as a result of heme degradation, to our knowledge there is no evidence that biliverdin
IX[alpha] is synthesized in Heliopora.
Ndisang, "A critical and comprehensive insight on heme oxygenase and related products including carbon monoxide, bilirubin, biliverdin
and ferritin in type-1 and type-2 diabetes," Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol.
Hosicket al., "Biliverdin
reductase A attenuates hepatic steatosis by inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3[beta] phosphorylation of serine 73 of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) [alpha]", The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is the enzyme that degrades heme into biliverdin
, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron.
They indicate that these lizard species build up a toxic substance called biliverdin
. The lizards' red blood cells still depend on hemoglobin, the stuff that ferries oxygen and makes most animal blood red, but any lizard-blood redness is overwhelmed by massive concentrations of the green biliverdin
This enzyme, apart from playing a major role in the degradation of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin
, has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties, and provides antioxidative protection to endothelial progenitor cells, by being a key enzyme in their biology (Dulak et al.
Among the antioxidant genes activated by Nrf2, one of the most commonly studied is the heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) gene which converts free heme, which has prooxidant effects, into iron, carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin
, with the last being converted into the antioxidant bilirubin via an activity also raised by Nrf2, the two biliverdin
This difference in color was due to variation in natural pigments such as biliverdin
or carotenoids present in buffalo or cow milk.
Hemeoxygenase-I is an enzyme that plays a role in the reduction of heme to biliverdin
, carbon monoxide, and free divalent iron.
They involve converting conjugated bilirubin forms into biliverdin
and, unlike the diazo method, are unaffected by coexisting substances such as hemoglobin or vitamin C (6).