bilirubin encephalopathy


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encephalopathy

 [en-sef″ah-lop´ah-the]
any degenerative disease of the brain.
AIDS encephalopathy HIV encephalopathy.
anoxic encephalopathy hypoxic encephalopathy.
biliary encephalopathy (bilirubin encephalopathy) kernicterus.
bovine spongiform encephalopathy a prion disease of adult cattle in the British Isles with neurologic symptoms. It is transmitted by feed containing protein in the form of meat and bone meal derived from infected animals. The etiologic agent is also the cause of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Called also mad cow disease.
boxer's encephalopathy (boxer's traumatic encephalopathy) a syndrome due to cumulative head blows absorbed in the boxing ring, characterized by slowing of mental function, occasional bouts of confusion, and scattered memory loss. It may progress to the more serious boxer's dementia. See also postconcussional syndrome.
dialysis encephalopathy a degenerative disease of the brain associated with longterm use of hemodialysis, marked by speech disorders and constant myoclonic jerks, progressing to global dementia.
hepatic encephalopathy a condition, usually occurring secondary to advanced liver disease, marked by disturbances of consciousness that may progress to deep coma (hepatic coma), psychiatric changes of varying degree, flapping tremor, and fetor hepaticus.
HIV encephalopathy (HIV-related encephalopathy) a progressive primary encephalopathy caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus type I, manifested by a variety of cognitive, motor, and behavioral abnormalities. Called also AIDS encephalopathy.
hypernatremic encephalopathy a severe hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by the hyperosmolarity accompanying hypernatremia and dehydration.
hypertensive encephalopathy a complex of cerebral phenomena such as headache, convulsions, and coma that occur in the course of malignant hypertension.
hypoxic encephalopathy encephalopathy caused by hypoxia from either decreased rate of blood flow or decreased oxygen content of arterial blood; mild cases cause temporary intellectual, visual, and motor disturbances, and severe cases can cause permanent brain damage within five minutes. Called also anoxic encephalopathy.
lead encephalopathy brain disease caused by lead poisoning.
mitochondrial encephalopathy encephalopathy associated with mitochondrial abnormalities, such as melas syndrome and merrf syndrome.
portal-systemic encephalopathy (portasystemic encephalopathy) hepatic encephalopathy.
progressive subcortical encephalopathy Schilder's disease.
subacute spongiform encephalopathy (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) prion disease.
traumatic encephalopathy
Wernicke's encephalopathy a neurological disorder characterized by confusion, apathy, drowsiness, ataxia of gait, nystagmus, and ophthalmoplegia; it is due to thiamine deficiency, usually from chronic alcohol abuse. It is almost invariably accompanied by or followed by korsakoff's syndrome and frequently accompanied by other nutritional polyneuropathies. See also wernicke-korsakoff syndrome.

ker·nic·ter·us

(ker-nik'tĕr-ŭs),
Jaundice associated with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin, or in small premature infants with more modest degrees of bilirubinemia; yellow staining and degenerative lesions are found chiefly in basal ganglia including in the lenticular nucleus, subthalamus, Ammon horn, and other areas; may occur with hemolytic disorder such as Rh or ABO erythroblastosis or G6PD deficiency as well as with neonatal sepsis or Crigler-Najjar syndrome; characterized early clinically by opisthotonos, high-pitched cry, lethargy, and poor sucking, as well as abnormal or absent Moro reflex, and loss of upward gaze; later consequences include deafness, cerebral palsy, other sensorineural deficits, and mental retardation.
[Ger. Kern, kernel (nucleus), + Ikterus, jaundice]

bilirubin encephalopathy

Kernicterus, see there.

ker·nic·ter·us

(kĕr-nik'tĕr-ŭs)
Yellow staining and degenerative lesions in basal ganglia associated with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin in infants; may occur with hemolytic disorder such as Rh or ABO erythroblastosis or G6PD deficiency as well as with neonatal sepsis or Crigler-Najjar syndrome; characterized by opisthotonos, high-pitched cry, lethargy, and poor suckling, as well as abnormal or absent Moro reflex, and loss of upward gaze; later consequences include deafness, cerebral palsy, other sensorineural deficits, and mental retardation.
Synonym(s): bilirubin encephalopathy, nuclear jaundice.
[Ger. Kern, kernel (nucleus), + ikterus, jaundice]

ker·nic·ter·us

(kĕr-nik'tĕr-ŭs)
Yellow staining and degenerative lesions in basal ganglia associated with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin in infants; characterized by opisthotonos, high-pitched cry, lethargy and poor sucking, and loss of upward gaze; later consequences include deafness, cerebral palsy, other sensorineural deficits, and mental retardation.
Synonym(s): bilirubin encephalopathy, nuclear jaundice.
[Ger. Kern, kernel (nucleus), + ikterus, jaundice]
References in periodicals archive ?
The term "bilirubin encephalopathy" is, in fact, more appropriate for the acute clinical findings.
(58,59) Prudent evaluation may facilitate prediction of severe jaundice and enable prevention of bilirubin encephalopathy in future siblings.
Kernicterus and bilirubin encephalopathy. Semin Liver Dis.
While universal screening for jaundice in near and full-term infants is widespread in the United States, the Task Force found that there isn't a screening test that can reliably identify all infants at risk for developing chronic bilirubin encephalopathy. The evidence supports using risk factor assessment or hour-specific bilirubin measurement to identify infants at risk for hyperbilirubinemia, but not all infants with chronic bilirubin en cephalopathy have a history of hyperbilirubinemia, the Task Force wrote.
The group also could not find enough evidence to determine whether treatment could help prevent chronic bilirubin encephalopathy.
LeFevre cautioned them to keep in mind that they can't detect and prevent all cases of chronic bilirubin encephalopathy that way.
"Practicing clinicians should be aware that we're [screening] with the assumption that we should be able to reduce the incidence of chronic bilirubin encephalopathy, but that remains unknown," said Dr.
Immediate exchange transfusion is recommended in any infant who is jaundiced with signs of the acute bilirubin encephalopathy including hypertonia, arching, retrocollis and opisthotonos (head and heels drawn back), fever, and high-pitched cry--even if the bilirubin is decreasing (AAP, 2004) (see Table 4).
The manifestations of acute bilirubin encephalopathy and chronic kernicteric sequelae may be minimal to severe and occur as various combinations (or possibly, isolated findings) of extrapyramidal disorders, neuromotor abnormalities, sensorineural hearing loss, and visual disability.
Although most of the jaundiced babies are normal, because of the bilirubin toxicity; high serum bilirubin levels can lead to kernicterus (1) (bilirubin encephalopathy) and hearing.
Both infants, one in South Dakota and one in Texas, failed phototherapy and were in danger of bilirubin encephalopathy from excessive serum bilirubin levels.
Because severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is associated with bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus, timely decisions must be made.