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blockage of the common or cystic bile duct, usually caused by one or more gallstones. It impedes bile drainage and produces an inflammatory reaction. Less common causes of biliary obstruction include choledochal cysts, pancreatic and duodenal tumors, Crohn's disease, pancreatitis, echinococcosis, ascariasis, and sclerosing cholangitis. Stones, consisting chiefly of cholesterol, bile pigment, and calcium, may form in the gallbladder and in the hepatic duct in persons of either sex at any age but are more common in middle-aged women. Increased amounts of serum cholesterol in the blood, such as occurs in obesity, diabetes, hypothyroidism, biliary stasis, and inflammation of the biliary system, promote gallstone formation. Cholelithiasis may be asymptomatic until a stone lodges in a biliary duct, but the patient usually has a history of indigestion and discomfort after eating fatty foods. A calculus biliary obstruction should be considered cancerous until proven otherwise.
observations Biliary obstruction is characterized by severe epigastric pain, often radiating to the back and shoulder, nausea, vomiting, and profuse diaphoresis. The dehydrated patient may have chills; fever; jaundice; clay-colored stools; dark, concentrated urine; an electrolyte imbalance; and a tendency to bleed because the absence of bile prevents the synthesis and absorption of fat-soluble vitamin K.
interventions The patient is placed in bed in a semi-Fowler's position and is usually administered intermittent nasogastric suctioning, parenteral fluids with electrolytes and fat-soluble vitamins, and medication for pain. Antibiotics, anticholinergic and antispasmodic drugs, and a cholecystogram or ultrasound scan may be ordered. The blood pressure, temperature, pulse, and respirations are monitored, and the patient is helped to turn, cough, and deep breathe every 2 to 4 hours. Fluid intake and output are measured, and the color and character of urine and stools are noted. When the nasogastric tube is removed, the patient initially receives a low-fat liquid diet and progresses to a soft or normal diet, as tolerated; up to 2500 mL of fluids a day are encouraged or administered intravenously, unless contraindicated. Cholecystectomy is usually the definitive treatment, but in most cases surgery is delayed until the patient's condition is stabilized and any prothrombin deficiency (caused by vitamin K malabsorption) is corrected.
biliary obstructionA blockage of the bile ducts with accumulation of bile in the liver.
Colicky upper right-quadrant pain, jaundice, itching, dark-coloured urine.
Stone, tumour, pancreas (tumours or pancreatitis), cholecystitis, bile duct cysts, trauma, bile duct stricture, enlarged lymph nodes.
biliary obstructionBile duct obstruction Clinical medicine A blockage of the bile ducts with accumulation of bile in the liver Etiology Stone, tumor, pancreas–tumors or pancreatitis, cholecystitis, bile duct cysts, trauma, bile duct stricture, enlarged lymph nodes Clinical Colic, jaundice. See Gall bladder disease.
pertaining to the bile, to the bile ducts, or to the gallbladder. See also bile duct.
removal in the bile of substances including drugs, toxins, hormones or pigments, or their breakdown products. These are delivered to the duodenum and removed in the feces.
one of the three forms of hepatic fibrosis; largely confined to the portal triads; see also bile duct fibrosis.
areas of hepatic fibrosis that physically resemble vascular infarcts but are related to damaged bile ducts.
interlobular biliary duct
see bile duct.
obstruction of biliary ducts may be intra- or extrahepatic, and intraluminal (calculi) or by external compression by tumor mass or cicatricial contraction, or more commonly in food animals by migrating ascarid larvae in the bile ducts or by cholangitis caused by Fasciola hepatica or Dichrocoelium dendriticum. Jaundice is the outstanding clinical sign of the condition. See also cholestasis.
see bile salt.
the organs, ducts, etc., participating in secretion (the liver), storage (the gallbladder, if present), and delivery (hepatic and bile ducts) of bile into the duodenum.