bile

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bile

 [bīl]
a clear yellow or orange fluid produced by the liver. It is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder, and is poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts when needed for digestion. Bile helps in alkalinizing the intestinal contents and plays a role in the emulsification, absorption, and digestion of fat; its chief constituents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin, and electrolytes. The bile salts emulsify fats by breaking up large fat globules into smaller ones so that they can be acted on by the fat-splitting enzymes of the intestine and pancreas. A healthy liver produces bile according to the body's needs and does not require stimulation by drugs. Infection or disease of the liver, inflammation of the gallbladder, or the presence of gallstones can interfere with the flow of bile.
bile acids steroid acids derived from cholesterol; classified as primary, those synthesized in the liver, e.g., cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids, or secondary, those produced from primary bile acids by intestinal bacteria and returned to the liver by enterohepatic circulation, e.g., deoxycholic and lithocholic acids.
bile ducts the canals or passageways that conduct bile. There are three bile ducts: the hepatic duct drains bile from the liver; the cystic duct is an extension of the gallbladder and conveys bile from the gallbladder. These two ducts may be thought of as branches that drain into the “trunk,” or common bile duct. The common bile duct passes through the wall of the small intestine at the duodenum and joins with the pancreatic duct to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla, or ampulla of Vater. At the opening into the small intestine there is a sphincter that automatically controls the flow of bile into the intestine.

The bile ducts may become obstructed by gallstones, benign or malignant tumors, or a severe local infection. Various disorders of the gallbladder or bile ducts are often diagnosed by ultrasonography, radionuclide imaging, and x-ray examination of the gallbladder and bile ducts using a special contrast medium so that these hollow structures can be clearly outlined on the x-ray film.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

bile

(bīl), Avoid the jargonistic substitution of this word for bile pigment(s) in expressions such as bile in the urine and bile staining of tissues.
Yellowish-brown or green fluid secreted by the liver and discharged into the duodenum, where it aids in the emulsification of fats, increases peristalsis, and retards putrefaction; contains sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate, cholesterol, biliverdin, bilirubin, mucus, fat, lecithin, and cells and cellular debris.
Synonym(s): gall (1)
[L. bilis]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

bile

(bīl)
n.
A bitter, alkaline, brownish-yellow or greenish-yellow fluid that is secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and discharged into the duodenum and aids in the emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats. Also called gall1.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

bile

(bīl)
The yellowish-brown or greenish fluid secreted by the liver and discharged into the duodenum, where it aids in the emulsification of fats, increases peristalsis, and retards putrefaction; contains sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate, cholesterol, biliverdin and bilirubin, mucus, fat, lecithin, cells, and cellular debris.
[L. bilis]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

bile

The dark greenish-brown fluid secreted by the LIVER, stored and concentrated in the GALL BLADDER, and ejected into the DUODENUM to assist in the absorption of fats. Bile contains bile salts which help to emulsify fats, bile pigments derived from the breakdown of red blood cells, cholesterol, lecithin and traces of various minerals and metals.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
Fig. 64 Bile. The human gallbladder and bile duct.click for a larger image
Fig. 64 Bile . The human gallbladder and bile duct.

bile

a thick, brown-green fluid secreted by the liver which is alkaline in its reactions, containing bile salts, bile pigments, CHOLESTEROL and inorganic salts. Bile is transferred from the liver to the DUODENUM via the bile duct which in many mammals contains a reservoir called the gall bladder. The bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin) result from the breakdown of HAEMOGLOBIN in red blood cells, giving the bile its coloration which in turn affects the colour of the FAECES. The amount of cholesterol excreted in bile depends upon the blood fat level, the cholesterol in the bile normally being kept in solution by the bile salts. Reduction in the bile salt concentration can cause cholesterol to be deposited in the gall bladder, contributing to the formation of gallstones. Although bile contains no digestive enzymes, bile salts are also responsible for the EMULSIFICATION of fats in the duodenum, lowering the surface tension of the fatty film surrounding fatty food particles, so producing a larger surface area on which digestive enzymes (LIPASES) can work. Secretion of bile from the liver is stimulated by the hormone SECRETIN which is produced in the wall of the duodenum.

See also CHOLECYSTOKININ-PANCREOZYMIN.

Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Bile

A substance produced by the liver, and concentrated and stored in the gallbladder. Bile contains many different substances, including bile salts, cholesterol, and bilirubin. After a meal, the gallbladder pumps bile into the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) to keep the intestine's contents at the appropriate pH for digestion, and to help break down fats.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

bile

(bīl) Avoid the jargonistic substitution of this word for bile pigment(s) in expressions such as bile in the urine and bile staining of tissues.
Yellowish-brown or green fluid secreted by the liver and discharged into the duodenum, where it aids in the emulsification of fats.
Synonym(s): gall (1) .
[L. bilis]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Fundoplication may have a role, because studies have shown excellent control of acid and bile reflux following this procedure.
% of subjects with characteristic Dyspepsia HP- HP+ Characteristic (n = 46) (n = 24) Age >65 years 39.1 41.7 Female sex 76.1 50.0 NSAID use 32.6 37.5 Smoking 10.9 12.5 Relative's ulcer(a) 10.9 12.5 Bile reflux 2.2 4.2 Previous ulcer 0.0 0.0 Ulcer HP- HP+ Characteristic (n = 36) (n = 101) P-value Age >65 years 80.6 33.7 <0.001 Female sex 66.7 44.6 0.0019 NSAID use 69.4 33.0 0.0011 Smoking 22.2 50.0 <0.001 Relative's ulcer(a) 21.9 29.6 0.059 Bile reflux 16.7 4.1 0.023 Previous ulcer 44.4 49.0 <0.001 (a) Ulcer in a first-degree relative.
[Beta] estimate SE Intercept -12.15 2.77 Age >65 years 7.19 2.45 Female sex 0.71 0.66 Bile reflux 1.64 0.76 Relative's ulcer(a) 1.06 0.64 NSAID use 1.24 0.57 Previous ulcer 0.46 0.29 Atrophy(b) -0.41 0.57 Inflammation(b) -0.25 0.49 Activity(b) -0.41 0.38 Intestinal metaplasia(b) 0.68 0.32 P-value Intercept <0.001 Age >65 years 0.0034 Female sex 0.28 Bile reflux 0.031 Relative's ulcer(a) 0.10 NSAID use 0.029 Previous ulcer 0.11 Atrophy(b) 0.47 Inflammation(b) 0.62 Activity(b) 0.28 Intestinal metaplasia(b) 0.036 (a) Ulcer in a first-degree relative.
Duodenogastric Bile reflux is more common after cholecystectomy17, gastric surgery including total gastrectomy and gastric bypass surgery for weight loss.
Duodenogastric bile reflux associated gastritis contributed more than H.
The grades of gastric residue, remnant gastritis, and bile reflux did not differ in these two groups (Figure 1).
BII reconstruction was rarely performed by any Japanese surgeons, because it can cause more severe bile reflux, which may strongly correlate with carcinogenesis in the gastric remnant [26].
Gastric adenocarcinoma occurred significantly (50%) more often in rats with bile reflux who were treated with lansoprazole compared with bile reflux controls (27%) (Viste 2004).
Gastroesophageal reflux disease poorly responsive to single-dose proton pump inhibitors in patients without Barrett's esophagus: Acid reflux, bile reflux, or both?
Design.--Thirty-eight gastric biopsies diagnosed as reactive gastropathy, related to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 18) or bile reflux (n = 6) or of indeterminate etiology (n = 14), were evaluated using antibodies to MUC1, MUC5AC, MUC6, and MUC2.
The relationship between acid and bile reflux and symptoms in gastro-esophageal reflux disease.
If a patient stays symptomatic despite adequate acid suppression, factors implicated in this include weakly acid reflux, duodenogastric/ bile reflux, oesophageal hypersensitivity, concomitant functional bowel disease, psychological co-morbidities, delayed gastric emptying and eosinophilic oesophagitis.