bile acids


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bile

 [bīl]
a clear yellow or orange fluid produced by the liver. It is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder, and is poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts when needed for digestion. Bile helps in alkalinizing the intestinal contents and plays a role in the emulsification, absorption, and digestion of fat; its chief constituents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin, and electrolytes. The bile salts emulsify fats by breaking up large fat globules into smaller ones so that they can be acted on by the fat-splitting enzymes of the intestine and pancreas. A healthy liver produces bile according to the body's needs and does not require stimulation by drugs. Infection or disease of the liver, inflammation of the gallbladder, or the presence of gallstones can interfere with the flow of bile.
bile acids steroid acids derived from cholesterol; classified as primary, those synthesized in the liver, e.g., cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids, or secondary, those produced from primary bile acids by intestinal bacteria and returned to the liver by enterohepatic circulation, e.g., deoxycholic and lithocholic acids.
bile ducts the canals or passageways that conduct bile. There are three bile ducts: the hepatic duct drains bile from the liver; the cystic duct is an extension of the gallbladder and conveys bile from the gallbladder. These two ducts may be thought of as branches that drain into the “trunk,” or common bile duct. The common bile duct passes through the wall of the small intestine at the duodenum and joins with the pancreatic duct to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla, or ampulla of Vater. At the opening into the small intestine there is a sphincter that automatically controls the flow of bile into the intestine.

The bile ducts may become obstructed by gallstones, benign or malignant tumors, or a severe local infection. Various disorders of the gallbladder or bile ducts are often diagnosed by ultrasonography, radionuclide imaging, and x-ray examination of the gallbladder and bile ducts using a special contrast medium so that these hollow structures can be clearly outlined on the x-ray film.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

bile ac·ids

steroid acids found in bile, for example, taurocholic and glycocholic acids, used therapeutically when biliary secretion is inadequate and for biliary colic. Their physiologic roles include fat emulsification. Their synthesis is reduced in disorders of the peroxisomes.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

bile ac·ids

(bīl as'idz)
Steroid acids found in bile (e.g., taurocholic and glycocholic acids), used therapeutically when biliary secretion is inadequate and for biliary colic. Their physiologic roles include fat emulsification.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

bile acids

Cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. These are produced in the liver from cholesterol, linked with glycine or taurine to form BILE SALTS and passed into the small intestine in the bile.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Albireo Pharma is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused through its operating subsidiary on the development of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases, and other liver and gastrointestinal diseases and disorders.
Primary bile acids have both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic side.
A significant positive correlation was found between the concentration of bile acids and uric acid (Table 2), possibly because uric acid is also synthesized in the liver.
Bile salt hydrolase is an important enzyme in bile acid deconjugation and might be major characteristic to reveal before using of a novel probiotic isolate for human.
Furthermore, increased levels of bile acids were observed in HCV patients compared with that in the healthy control and in the patients with advanced fibrosis compared with that in the early fibrotic and non-fibrotic patients (F0).
Rao, "Thematic review series: Bile acids. Bile acid transporters," Journal of Lipid Research, vol.
Caption: Figure 2: Pathophysiology of enterohepatic circulation: bile acids (BAs) excreted in the intestinal lumen are mainly reabsorbed in the ileum through the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) and return to the liver through the portal vessels.
Spore and total bacterial counts were performed three times for bacteria grown in BHI in the presence or the absence of nisin and bile acids.
Jungst, "Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on synthesis of cholesterol and bile acids in healthy subjects," Digestion, vol.
Serum bile acids were evaluated using an enzymatic assay with intra and inter-assay precisions of 3% and 4%, respectively, [Diazyme Total Bile Acids (TBA) kit; Diazyme Diagnostic Laboratories, USA] and a Cobas C501 (Roche, USA).
For example, the gut microbiome modifies primary bile acids to secondary bile acids (Ridlon et al.