Furthermore, they show that in both aspirated and unaspirated stops, VOT is shortest for bilabial stops and intermediate for alveolar stops, with the exception of the unaspirated stops in Tamil and the aspirated stops in Cantonese and Eastern Armenian.
According to Cho and Ladefoged (1999), there are two ways of considering this: firstly, the cavity behind the velar stop has a smaller volume than that behind the alveolar or bilabial stops; secondly, the cavity in front of the velar stop has a larger volume than that in front of the alveolar or bilabial stops.
Because the velar stop has extensive contact between the tongue body and the palate, there is a larger Bernoulli force so that the change in cross- sectional area is relatively slow compared with that for the bilabial or alveolar stops.
Table 3: Mean VOT and standard deviation for Pahari bilabial stops
VOTs of dental and alveolar are less than bilabial and this provides the evidence against the claim that VOT difference is the relative size of the supra-glottal cavity behind the point of constriction (Maddieson, 1977).
A significant difference is found in the VOT of bilabial and velar stops in Pahari.
An unreleased bilabial stop has also been reported for Oaxaca Chontal, another Mesoamerican language spoken in Oaxaca (Maddieson et al.
There are two nasals in bilabial and in alveolar position: /m, n/.
Voiced bilabial nasal: mits 'cat' pa'am 'illness' mamokx 'fifteen' Voiceless bilabial nasal: poxm spider' po'tmp summer' a'chmp 'custard apple' Voiced alveolar nasal nets 'armadillo' joon 'bird' nanuele 'grandmother' Voiceless alveolar nasal: iijxn 'mirror' kaajpn 'village' kaychyakn 'kitchen' Voiced velar nasal: maank 'son' u'unkech 'children' juunk 'sheep' Voiced bilabial nasal: > [mits] > [[pa.
Glides occur in bilabial and palatal position: /w, y/.
Bilabial glide: kow 'guitar' -> [kow] waay 'hair' -> [wa[?