A plasma glycoprotein that is found in both the free state and covalently bound to the heavy chains of certain protease inhibitors. It may participate in cell growth, oocyte cumulus expansion and stabilization.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


A gene on chromosome 9q32-q33 that encodes alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor protein, which is expressed in liver and secreted in plasma. Alpha-1-microglobulin belongs to the superfamily of lipocalin transport proteins and plays a role in regulating inflammation; bikunin belongs to the superfamily of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors and plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes, by inhibiting trypsin, plasmin and lysosomal granulocytic elastase, as well as calcium oxalate crystallisation.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) is a small proteoglycan (PG), with inhibitory activity against serine proteases, resulting from excretion of plasma bikunin into urine [1].
OS upregulates the expression of various factors, including bikunin, osteopontin (OPN), and the Tamm-Horsfall protein, and activates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.
Ulinastatin is also called urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI), HI-30, or bikunin. It is acid glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 67,000 kDa.
The paper is titled "The proteoglycan bikunin has a defined sequence."
Exposure of renal epithelial cells to CaOx crystals results in the increased synthesis of osteopontin, bikunin, heparan sulphate, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-l, and prostaglandin (PG) E2, which are known to participate in inflammatory processes and in extracellular matrix production.
The AMBP gives rise to two proteins, [[alpha].sub.1]-microglobulin and bikunin. The exact function of [[alpha].sub.1]-microglobulin is unknown.
Trypsin and chymotrypsin activate ENaCs in the epithelium of endometrium of the uterus to help fertilization of oocytes.[sup][32],[33] Contrastly, extracellular serine protease inhibitors, such as aprotinin and bikunin, have been shown to decrease channel activity.[sup][34] In addition, furin, a proprotein convertase that cleaves latent precursor proteins into biologically active products, cleaves a and a subunits of ENaCs during its maturation.[sup][35] Furin cleaves a subunit twice and then release a 26 residue fragment.[sup][35],[36] Mutation on a subunit furin consensus sites dramatically reduces channel activity.
Immunohistochemical demonstration of bikunin, a light chain of inter-[alpha]-trypsin inhibitor, in human brain tumors.
Moreover, chemical modifications of HA with TSG-6 and bikunin alter the properties of high molecular weight HA [18].