Urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) is a small proteoglycan (PG), with inhibitory activity against serine proteases, resulting from excretion of plasma bikunin
into urine .
OS upregulates the expression of various factors, including bikunin
, osteopontin (OPN), and the Tamm-Horsfall protein, and activates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.
Ulinastatin is also called urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI), HI-30, or bikunin
. It is acid glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 67,000 kDa.
I[alpha]I comprises two heavy chains and bikunin
The paper is titled "The proteoglycan bikunin
has a defined sequence."
Suppression of urokinase expression and tumor metastasis by bikunin
Exposure of renal epithelial cells to CaOx crystals results in the increased synthesis of osteopontin, bikunin
, heparan sulphate, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-l, and prostaglandin (PG) E2, which are known to participate in inflammatory processes and in extracellular matrix production.
The AMBP gives rise to two proteins, [[alpha].sub.1]-microglobulin and bikunin
. The exact function of [[alpha].sub.1]-microglobulin is unknown.
Trypsin and chymotrypsin activate ENaCs in the epithelium of endometrium of the uterus to help fertilization of oocytes.[sup], Contrastly, extracellular serine protease inhibitors, such as aprotinin and bikunin
, have been shown to decrease channel activity.[sup] In addition, furin, a proprotein convertase that cleaves latent precursor proteins into biologically active products, cleaves a and a subunits of ENaCs during its maturation.[sup] Furin cleaves a subunit twice and then release a 26 residue fragment.[sup], Mutation on a subunit furin consensus sites dramatically reduces channel activity.
Immunohistochemical demonstration of bikunin
, a light chain of inter-[alpha]-trypsin inhibitor, in human brain tumors.
Moreover, chemical modifications of HA with TSG-6 and bikunin
alter the properties of high molecular weight HA .