Hirst, "Molecular features of biguanides
required for targeting of mitochondrial respiratory complex I and activation of AMP-kinase," BMC Biology, vol.
In previous calculations, the system recommended MET (Biguanides
), DPP-4, SU (Sulfonylureas), and Insulin for patient_1.
The direct mechanistic knowledge on how biguanides
(metformin, phenformin) influence mitochondrial function is not yet clear.
Metformin is a biguanide
oral antidiabetic agent which is commonly used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Metformin is an oral antidiabetic biguanide
that has been shown to cause metabolic acidosis .
That led Shaw and his team to a class of drugs called biguanides
, which lower cellular energy levels by attacking the power stations of the cell, called mitochondria.
Among diabetic interviewed subjects, 23.2% made use of biguanides
, 15.9% used sulfonylureas, and only 6.6% used insulin (Table 2).
The patents in suits cover a combination use of ACTOS with other oral antidiabetic products (?-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides
, and glimepiride), and Takeda believes that manufacturing and selling generic products of ACTOS without its consent will infringe such patents.
such as metformin in the prophylaxis (prevention) and/or therapy of
In the early 1970s, Professor Vladimir Dilman originally developed the idea that antidiabetic biguanides
may be promising as geroprotectors and anticancer drugs ("metabolic rehabilitation").
Other classes of glucose-lowering drugs include sulfonylureas, meglitinides, biguanides
, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and dipeptyidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors.
Currently, there are six major classes of oral hypoglycemic agents available in the United States: agents that stimulate insulin secretion (sulfonylureas and rapid-acting secretagogues); reduce hepatic glucose production (biguanides
); delay digestion and absorption of intestinal carbohydrates ([alpha]-glucosidase inhibitors); improve insulin action (thiazolidin-ediones [TZDs]); or inhibit glucagon release (dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 [DPP-4] inhibitors).