bicuspid aortic valve


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valve

 [valv]
a membranous fold in a canal or passage that prevents backward flow of material passing through it.
aortic valve a semilunar valve that separates the left ventricle and the aorta; it opens with end diastole, causing the second heart sound.
atrioventricular v's the cardiac valves between the right atrium and right ventricle (tricuspid valve) and the left atrium and left ventricle (mitral valve).
bicuspid valve mitral valve.
bicuspid aortic valve a congenital anomaly of the aortic valve, caused by incomplete separation of two of the three cusps; it is generally asymptomatic early in life but is predisposed to calcification and stenosis later on.
Braschi valve a one-way valve put into the inspiratory limb of a ventilator circuit in order to measure the intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure.
cardiac v's valves that control flow of blood through and from the heart.
coronary valve a valve at the entrance of the coronary sinus into the right atrium.
flail mitral valve a mitral valve having a cusp that has lost its normal support (as in ruptured chordae tendineae) and flutters in the blood stream.
heart v's cardiac valves.
Heimlich valve a small one-way valve used for chest drainage, emptying into a flexible collection device; the valve prevents return of gases or fluids into the pleural space. The Heimlich valve is less than 13 cm (5 inches) long and facilitates patient ambulation; it can be used in many patients instead of a traditional water seal drainage system.
ileocecal valve (ileocolic valve) the valve guarding the opening between the ileum and cecum.
mitral valve the cardiac valve between the left atrium and left ventricle, usually having two cusps (anterior and posterior). Called also bicuspid valve.
Valves of the heart. The right heart pumps the venous blood into the lungs. The oxygenated blood returns from the lungs into the left atrium and is propelled by the left ventricle into the aorta. The insets show closed valves: the tricuspid valve has three leaflets, whereas the mitral valve has two leaflets. The aortic and pulmonary artery valves have three leaflets and resemble one another except for the fact that the coronary arteries originate from behind the cusps in the aorta. From Damjanov, 1996.
posterior urethral valve any of various types of congenital folds across the proximal part of the male urethra near the seminal colliculus, the most common cause of urethral obstruction in male infants.
pulmonary valve (pulmonic valve) the pocketlike cardiac valve that protects the orifice between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
pyloric valve a prominent fold of mucous membrane at the pyloric orifice of the stomach.
semilunar v's the cardiac valves that have semilunar cusps; see aortic valve and pulmonary valve.
thebesian valve coronary valve.
tricuspid valve the cardiac valve guarding the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle.
valve of vein (venous v's) any of the small cusps or folds found in the tunica intima of many veins, serving to prevent backflow of blood.

fa·mil·i·al a·or·tic ec·ta·si·a syn·drome

the concurrence as an autosomal dominant trait of bicuspid aortic valve often with premature calcification, ectasia, and dissection of the aorta and, rarely, coarctation of the aorta. Superficially resembles the Marfan syndrome.

bicuspid aortic valve

A congenital heart defect in which the aortic annulus has 2 instead of 3 semilunar valves, a finding in up to 3% of the population. The male:female ratio is 4:1; 20% of those with a bicuspid aortic valves have other cardiac defects—e.g., patent ductus arteriosus or aortic coarctation. The valve is subjected to abnormal hemodynamic stress, leading to leaflet thickening, calcification and aortic stenosis; in absence of other cardiac defects, bicuspid aortic valves are not associated with increased mortality.

Molecular pathology
BAVs are associated with an increase in aneurysms of the ascending aorta, which is attributed to an alteration of the extracellular matrix and an increase in the ratio of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)1.

bicuspid aortic valve

Cardiology A congenital heart defect in which the aortic annulus has 2 instead of 3 semilunar valves, seen in 3% of the population; ♂:♀, 4:1; 20% of those with a BAV have other cardiovascular disease–eg, PDA or aortic coarctation; the valve is subjected to abnormal hemodynamic stress, leading to leaflet thickening, calcification and aortic stenosis. See Aortic stenosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
8) Our case had bicuspid aortic valve with severe stenosis.
Bicuspid aortic valve, which is described in the report of Meek et al.
Her father had the same valve problems, and her daughter, Evie, four, was also born with a bicuspid aortic valve.
Many people born with bicuspid aortic valve go on to develop early calcification, or hardening, of the aortic valves, which is the third most common cause of heart disease in adults.
One of the six also had aortic dilatation, a bicuspid aortic valve, and aortic regurgitation.
This condition, called aortic stenosis, can be the result of a congenital heart defect called bicuspid aortic valve.
The defect is generally associated with bicuspid aortic valve carrying increased risk of infective endocarditis or ventricular septal defect seen in almost 50% of patients; whereas 3-5% patients may have intracranial aneurysms.
Because patients are not exposed to ionizing radiation and nephrotoxic contrast media with this technique, MRI is an attractive option in this clinical setting (8,9) particularly for younger patients with conditions placing them at higher risk for TAAs such as bicuspid aortic valve and Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, and Loeys-Dietz syndromes.
His medical history was significant only for bicuspid aortic valve (BAV).
The congenital HVD group consisted of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) or bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) with valve regurgitation that without a history of previous ARF Control group was chosen from age- and sex-matched healthy children who were referred to our outpatient clinic because of the innocent heart murmur.
Most common is ventricular septal defect (30-60%), followed distantly by bicuspid aortic valve, pulmonary stenosis, aortic insufficiency, atrial septal defect, coarctation of the aorta and subvalvular aneurysms.