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bias

 [bi´as]
1. (in a measurement process) systematic error.
2. any influence or action at any stage of a study that systematically distorts the findings.
3. (of a statistical estimator) the difference between the expected value of the estimator and the true parameter value.

bi·as

(bī'-as),
1. Systematic discrepancy between a measurement and the true value; may be constant or proportionate and may adversely affect test results.
2. Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that differ systematically from the truth; deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to deviation.
[Fr. biais, obliquity, perh. fr. L. bifax, two-faced]

There is no imputation of prejudice, partisanship, or other subjective or emotional factor such as an investigator's desire to achieve a particular outcome. More than 100 varieties of bias have been described, but all fall into a small number of classes: 1. Systematic one-sided variation of measurements from the true value. SYN systematic error, instrumental error 2. Variation of statistical summary measures (means, rates, measures of association) from their true values as a result of systematic variation of measurements, other flaws in data collection, or flaws in study design or analysis. 3. Deviation of inferences from the truth as a result of flaws in study design, data collection, or the analysis or interpretation of results. 4. A tendency of procedures in study design, data collection, analysis, interpretation, review or publication, to yield results or conclusions that depart from the truth. 5. Prejudice leading to the conscious or subconscious selection of study procedures that depart from the truth in a particular direction, or to one-sidedness in interpretation of results. This last form of bias can arise as a result of shoddy scientific methods or deliberate misrepresentation of the truth by investigators.

bias

Epidemiology Deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such systematic deviation; any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically incorrect

bi·as

(bī'ăs)
1. Systematic discrepancy between a measurement and the true value; may be constant or proportionate and may adversely affect test results.
2. Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that differ systematically from the truth; deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to deviation.
[Fr. biais, obliquity, perh. fr. L. bifax, two-faced]

bi·as

(bī'ăs)
1. Systematic discrepancy between a measurement and the true value; may be constant or proportionate and may adversely affect test results.
2. Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review, which can lead to conclusions that differ systematically from the truth; deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to deviation.
[Fr. biais, obliquity, perh. fr. L. bifax, two-faced]
References in periodicals archive ?
Section III analyzes the equilibria behavior of the biased agents and the impact on the decision maker's welfare.
The biases were also chosen to illustrate the subtleties involved in saying that a biased agent chooses suboptimally.
That Iraqi oil won't pay the bills is biased against Bush.
Innis argues that the cultural predominance of spatially biased media of communications, such as television and cinema, contribute to the creation of "monopolies of knowledge" (what American Walter Lippmann later termed "the manufacture of consent") that spread themselves over vast geographical distances and can elide differences, encourage stereotypes and presume to occupy a pre-eminent, centralized, perhaps even "aerial" view.
PC detectors were used for the longer wavelength range where the detectors were biased with a dc current of 50 mA.
Lawrence's model law fails to cover those who act with the purpose of causing the mistaken perception of a biased crime.
According to Scheuer, television is the perfect vehicle for conservatism because television's visual and rhetorical conventions are biased toward a quick, telegraphic simplicity, and so.
Shortly after the sentencing, Lambda, joined by other civil rights groups, fried an amicus brief on Burdine's behalf, arguing that the prosecutor's statement had biased the jury and tainted the sentence.
The 122-page report opened with a quote from English educator Sir Walter Moberly: "The most pernicious kind of bias consists in falsely supposing yourself to have none." Unsurprisingly then, it noted that "some biased conduct toward parties and witnesses based on gender or race or ethnicity has occurred on the part of both judges and lawyers."
These treatment biased studies have been confined to analog designs which may clearly limit their generalization of this phenomena.
The main reason racial preferences are promoted by the government, enforced by the courts, and tolerated by private and public institutions is that hiring standards - in particular standardized tests are widely considered to be racially (and sometimes sexually) biased. One example from the public sector demonstrates that sometimes even the best intentions don't satisfy critics: In 1994, the Chicago police department was faulted by minority leaders after it spent $5 million to produce a bias-free test that failed to even scores among applicants of all races (out of 500 candidates who scored highest on the test, only 40 were black, and 20 were Hispanic).
How do we know when the line has been crossed from a responsible, plausible revision to a biased, need-motivated revision?