It showed that blocking the beta-receptor alone promotes cardiac remodelling via growth of cardiac fibroblasts induced by alpha-adrenergic receptor signaling.
Beta-blockers that target both the alpha- and beta-receptors on the heart muscle offer the most benefit to cardiac patients, while those that target only the beta-receptors can actually undermine the structure and function of the heart.
We also expect to bring three new programs into the clinic next year: ADENTRI(TM) for acute and chronic congestive heart failure, LT beta-receptor
for autoimmune diseases, and interferon beta gene therapy for glioma.
It also could change treatment programs, perhaps by incorporating the monitoring of a patient's ratio of alpha- to beta-receptor
stimulation or by developing medications that act on receptor sites.
Beta-blockers, like carvedilol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and nebivolol, block the beta-receptors
on heart cells, which when stimulated make the heart rate increase.
 Increased tone and frequency of contractions are believed to result from stimulation of alpha-receptors, and reduced activity from stimulation of beta-receptors
. In the rhesus monkey, labor is suppressed by the discharge of adrenaline when the animal is threatened.
Noradrenaline, released from sympathetic nerve endings, acts on beta-receptors
in the myocardium to increase the rate of contraction.
CS in turn have a positive effect on beta-receptors
. They increase the production of beta-receptors
, improve their function and resist the development of tolerance.
These agents, which include bisoprolol, metoprolol, atenolol, and acebutolol, are thought to selectively target the beta-receptors
in the cardiovascular system and, thus, are safer to use in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to the fact that exacerbations occur when the beta-1 receptors found in the lungs are blocked.
Increased tone and frequency of contractions are believed to result from stimulation of beta-receptors
, and reduced activity from stimulation of alpha-receptors.