Figure 6(a) shows the integrated TL (ITL) as a function of the irradiation dose, in the range from 0.08 to 10 Gy of beta particle
greater hazard than those that emit beta particles
and gamma radiation.
Though yttrium-90 has been used successfully on rheumatoid knees in European trials, notes Joe Straus, associate director of clinical research at Mallinckrodt, it sometimes proved too powerful on inflamed fingers and other small joints, causing "radiation burns to the skin overlying those joints." Samarium's less energetic beta particles
should allow the new preparation to be used in a broad range of joints, Straus says--not only the knee but also the finger, elbow, shoulder, and hip.
Moe and his colleagues have spent the last few years looking for a form of radioactivity known as neutrinoless double-beta decay, characterized by the simultaneous emission of two beta particles
, or electrons.
The second layer is made of gadolinium orthosilicate doped with cerium; this layer detects beta particles
, which are highly charged electrons.
This causes the nucleus of the atom to become radioactive and to emit beta particles
. In addition, the dislodged proton may ionize other atoms.
The advantage of this design is that precision electrode assemblies are not needed, and most beta particles
escape the finely-divided bulk material to contribute to the battery's net power.
The numbers represent a count of subatomic beta particles
ejected from the nucleus of radioactive atoms.
Often three things fall under the catch-all term "radiation:" gamma rays, which are high energy photons (light), beta particles
, which are electrons and positrons, alpha particles, which are helium nuclei, and neutrons.
are stronger and can penetrate the skin.
The working group also reaffirmed that internally deposited radionuclides that emit alpha or beta particles
, such as radon, are group 1 carcinogenic agents.
This process is called beta decay (electrons are also known as beta particles
), and when it occurs--voila!--the nucleus advances one square on the periodic table.