The naturally occurring radionuclides210Pb (beta emitter
) and 210Po (alpha emitter, decay product of 210Pb) have been detected in bone from caribou sampled in Canada at mean levels of 3800 and 3070 Bq/kg (Macdonald et al., 1996); in Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories at a range of means of 274 to 531 Bq/kg (210Pb) and 562 to 1022 Bq/kg (210Po) (Thomas et al., 1994); and in Alaskan reindeer bone at approximately 300 Bq/kg (Beasley and Palmer, 1966).
One day, doctors may even be able to select from a family of beta emitters
with different energies--and therapeutic ranges--to tailor the radiation's reach to a particular cancer's size.
[USPRwire, Mon Mar 21 2016] North American Nuclear Medicine/Radiopharmaceuticals Market by Type (Diagnostic (SPECT - Technetium, PET- F-18), Therapeutic (Beta Emitters
- I-131, Alpha Emitters, Brachytherapy - Y-90)), by Application (Oncology, Cardiology) - Forecasts to 2020
The final standards are: combined radium 226/228 of 5 picocuries per liter; a gross alpha standard for all alphas of 15 5 picocuries per liter, not including radon and uranium; and a combined standard of 4 millerems per year for beta emitters
. The standard from uranium will be 30 micrograms per liter.
The radioisotopes used on these patients included yttrium-90, rhenium-186, and erbium-169, all of which are beta emitters
but which have different penetration distances in soft tissue.
European Nuclear Medicine/Radiopharmaceuticals Market by Type (Diagnostic (SPECT - Technetium, PET - F-18), Therapeutic (Beta Emitters
- I-131, Alpha Emitters, Brachytherapy - Y-90)), by Application (Oncology, Thyroid, Cardiology) - Forecasts to 2020
Alpha emitters deposit higher energy over a significantly shorter distance versus beta emitters
, providing single-cell kill while leaving normal surrounding tissue unharmed.
Segments in the therapeutic market are beta emitters
, brachytherapy isotopes, and alpha emitters.