beta cell


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beta cell

n.
1. Any of the insulin-producing cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.
2. Any of the basophilic chromophil cells located in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

beta cell

A pancreatic endocrine cell that comprises up to 80% of the cells in the islets of Langerhans, which produces and releases insulin. Beta cells are destroyed or dysfunctional in type-1 diabetes, function suboptimally in type-2 diabetes and become neoplastic in insulinomas. Beta cells were once distinguished solely on the basis of differential staining from other cells designated A, C and D

beta cell

1. Any of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas that constitute the bulk of the islets of Langerhans. Synonym: B cell
2. A basophil cell of the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland).
See also: cell
References in periodicals archive ?
Diabetes mellitus, a debilitating chronic disorder, is posing serious health threats to general population and alarmingly increasing the global disease burden, particularly in the low-income countries.1 In type I diabetes, the environmental and nutritional factors induce oxidative stress and alter immune response by mediating the gene expression of cytokines which thrusts immune medicated beta cell loss.2 In type 2 diabetes mellitus, deranged glycaemic control induces glucotoxicity and lypotoxicity exposing the cellular environment to free fatty acid surge which drives beta cell apoptosis and insulin resistance.3 The loss of functional beta cell mass in endocrine pancreas is the ultimate hallmark of tissue injury in both type 1 or type 2 diabetes.4
Bhushan, "Beta cell replication is the primary mechanism for maintaining postnatal beta cell mass," The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.
Evidence for proteotoxicity in beta cells in type 2 diabetes: Toxic islet amyloid oligomers from intracellularly in the secretory pathway.
Growth and regeneration of adult beta cells does not involve specialized progenitors.
Since there were varied degrees of insulitis and a variable number of beta cells per islet in the pancreas of mice before death with different treatment, we compared their pancreatic insulin content, an indicator of pancreatic beta-cell mass.
Abstract.- The current study was carried out to analyze the process of growth, differentiation and development of alpha and beta cells of pancreatic islet during early post-natal period.
Harmon, "Chronic oxidative stress as a mechanism for glucose toxicity of the beta cell in type 2 diabetes," Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol.
Defective insulin secretion and increased susceptibility to experimental diabetes are induced by reduced Akt activity in pancreatic islet beta cells. J Clin Invest.
It is not known at this stage if the bone marrow stem cells are replacing the faulty immune system cells with ones that do not destroy the beta cells, or if the bone marrow cells are able to support the production of new beta cells.
In diabetes, the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them.
Their findings may be used to improve beta cell transplants for patients with type 1 diabetes.