beta cell


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beta cell

n.
1. Any of the insulin-producing cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.
2. Any of the basophilic chromophil cells located in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

beta cell

A pancreatic endocrine cell that comprises up to 80% of the cells in the islets of Langerhans, which produces and releases insulin. Beta cells are destroyed or dysfunctional in type-1 diabetes, function suboptimally in type-2 diabetes and become neoplastic in insulinomas. Beta cells were once distinguished solely on the basis of differential staining from other cells designated A, C and D

beta cell

1. Any of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas that constitute the bulk of the islets of Langerhans. Synonym: B cell
2. A basophil cell of the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland).
See also: cell
References in periodicals archive ?
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune metabolic condition in which the body kills off all the pancreatic beta cells that produce the insulin needed for glucose regulation in the body.
21 Beta cell diameter was determined by measuring the average of 5 inter-nuclear distances, including one nucleus, in five randomly selected islets per section.
Human and rat beta cells differ in glucose transporter but not in glucokinase gene expression.
Results: Significant differences were observed between obese and non-obese individuals regarding insulin resistance, beta cell function, and BMI and serum total cholesterol.
In humans, pancreatic acinar cells can serve as progenitor for pancreatic islets; a concept with substantial implications for therapeutic efforts to increase insulin producing beta cell mass in diabetic patients (Gao et al.
Defective insulin secretion and increased susceptibility to experimental diabetes are induced by reduced Akt activity in pancreatic islet beta cells.
The work, funded by the Health Research Board and the Mater Foundation, also showed that even in type 1 diabetics, the body continues to try and produce beta cells.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition which destroys the beta cells and leaves patients dependent on insulin injections.
It is not known at this stage if the bone marrow stem cells are replacing the faulty immune system cells with ones that do not destroy the beta cells, or if the bone marrow cells are able to support the production of new beta cells.
Symptoms of IDDM usually develop over a short period, although beta cell destruction can begin months, even years, earlier.
Using known methods, the scientists analyzed about 600 different cells on their path to beta cell differentiation and individually examined the cells to find out how much they molecularly resemble the beta cells.