berdache


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The name given by early French explorers to Native Americans who fulfilled mixed gender roles, either as male two spirits or female two spirits

berdache

(bĕr-dăsh′) [Fr.]
A person of a definite sex, male or female, who assumes the status and role of the opposite sex and is viewed by the community as being of one physiologic sex but as having assumed the status and role of the opposite sex.
References in periodicals archive ?
Some in the room were open about their sexual relationships in the field, including Williams, who acknowledged that his relationships with berdaches (or "two-spirit" people) enabled his access and understanding.
This militaristic tradition bled into the domestic sphere and inspired the homegrown berdache phenomenon, in which coercion, rape, and child abuse were defining features.
The reverence for this type of "combining" among humans contributed to the rise of the berdache, a unique type of person and institution explained in detail below.
Matthieu (1971) ecrit : << Il y a des societes oo il y a un troisieme sexe social >>, en faisant reference aux Berdaches amerindiens.
179) in 1657 if one does not know the central role the lifelong transvested male berdache had long played in traditional native culture, for presumably, the noteworthy amount of cross-dressing in Garza's documents traces back at least in part to this (by Garza unexamined) institution of the berdache.
Las figuras del berdache y del trickster son recuperadas como modelos positivos en los textos de varias autoras, como Love Medicine (1993) y The Antelope Wife (1998) de Louise Erdrich, The Woman Who Owned the Shadows (1983) de Paula Gunn Allen, o Flutie (1998) de Diane Glancy, que Martinez Falquina utiliza para demostrar la posibilidad de una apropiacion parodica de las definiciones etnicas y genericas sobre la que habia teorizado a lo largo de toda la obra, una re/vision constructiva de su identidad de acuerdo con criterios mas pragmaticos y ciertamente mas positivos, y un interes por hacer de la identidad relacional, de la integracion y del mestizaje criterios basicos con los que entender su posicion en la sociedad contemporanea.
La Queer Theory repudia la hegemonia de una cultura heterosexual y maneja el termino de Berdache u ordenamiento de generos multiples en otras culturas.
The important role of the berdache in many Native American nations provides a useful example.
The term berdache that was originally applied to the Native individuals who did not seem to fit conventional European definitions of dichotomous gender roles was popularized by French traders (Schnarch, 1992).
After his trips to the West, he wrote a novel, Altowan, whose main protagonist is an aristocratic fur trapper and whose love interest is a berdache, a man who lives as a woman.
Some chieftains might establish a berdache brothel that produced an income for them from active homosexual clients.