An example is 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) that had a single-pollutant odds ratio for an ASD diagnosis of 1.88 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.38), which was attenuated to 0.55 (95% CI: 0.22, 1.37) adjusting for benzidine
, to 0.83 (95% CI: 0.32, 2.14) adjusting for mercury compounds, and to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.48, 3.17) adjusting for pentachloronitrobenzene.
Other high-risk candidate populations could include longtime smokers, workers exposed to benzidine
, and patients with hereditary cancer syndromes.
Major risk factors for bladder cancer include older age, male gender, Caucasian race, personal/family history of bladder cancer, smoking, and exposure to aromatic amines, such as benzidine
and beta-naphthylamine used in the dye industry, dietary supplements containing aristolochic acid, and arsenic in drinking water .
Biodegradation of benzidine
based dye direct blue-6 by Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112.
, 3,3'-dicholorobenzidine, 2,4-toluenediamine, 2,6-toluenediamine.
After another rinsing, a dye consisting of tetra-methyl benzidine
and hydrogen peroxide was poured into the wells.
In an ice jacketed 100 ml beaker, benzidine
(0.01mol) was dissolved in acidified water (15 ml, hydrochloric acid 36.5%, 2.5 ml) at room temperature.
After 24 hours, Benzidine
test was performed to determine the presence of occult blood in feces (Beg et al,2002).
 examined the blood supply and the blood vessels in the mucosa of the auditory ossicles with another technique: complete temporal bones as well as extracted auditory ossicles were fixed with formalin and then exposed to a solution containing benzidine
, alcohol, and hydrogen peroxide, which stained the blood cells and then they analyzed the specimens with binocular glasses.
Chemical exposure was defined as having ever worked at work or home with any of the following: asbestos, arsenic salts, chromium salts, cadmium salts, asphalt, mineral oils, benzidine
, benzene, isopropyl oil, dyestuffs, vinyl chloride, pesticides, herbicides, mustard gas, welding, or wood dust.
Lastly, 50 [micro]l of 3, 3;, 5,5-tetramethyl- benzidine
dihydrochloride hydrate (TMB) (0, 2 mg x [ml.sup.-1]) solution was added to each well as a chromogen.
A total of 100 [micro]l of Tetra Methyl Benzidine
(TMB) chromogenic substrate was then dispensed in to each well and the plates were then incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature.