bedaquiline


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bedaquiline

(bed- ak-wi-leen) ,

Sirturo

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antituberculars
Pharmacologic: diarylquinolines
Pregnancy Category: B

Indications

Part of treatment (with at least three other drugs) of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in adults, when other treatment regimens cannot be provided. Not to be used for latent, extra-pulmonary or other-drug sensitive tuberculosis.

Action

Inhibits bacterial adenosine 5'triphosphate (ATP) synthase which is required for mycobacterial energy production.

Therapeutic effects

Shortened time to sputum conversion to negativity and resultant decrease in infectiousness and sequelae of tuberculosis.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Absorption following oral administration is doubled by food.
Distribution: Unk
Protein Binding: >99.9%
Metabolism and Excretion: Mostly metabolized (CYP3A4 enzyme system) and eliminated in feces, negligable renal excretion
Half-life: 5.5 months (terminal elimination half-life)

Time/action profile (blood levels)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POunk5 hrunk

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Systemic potent CYP3A4 inducers should be avoided. Use of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors for more than 14 consecutive days should be avoided[ Lactation: Avoid use during lactation.
Use Cautiously in: Concurrent use of lopinavir/ritonavir; Electrolyte abnormalities (correct prior to use); Severe hepatic or renal impairment; Concurrent use of other drugs that prolong the QT interval, history of Torsades de Pointes, prolonged QT interval, hypothyroidism and bradyarrhythmias, uncompensated CHF (↑ risk of QT prolongation and serious arrhythmias). Obstetric: Use during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Pediatric: Safe and effective use in children <18 yr has not been established.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • headache (most frequent)

Respiratory

  • hemoptysis

Cardiovascular

  • QT prolongation (life-threatening)
  • chest pain

Gastrointestinal

  • nausea (most frequent)
  • anorexia
  • hepatitis

Dermatologic

  • rash

Musculoskeletal

  • arthralgia (most frequent)

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

Systemic potent CYP3A4 inducers including rifampin, rifapentine and rifabution can ↓ levels and effectiveness and should be avoided. Potent CYP3A4 inhibitors including ketoconazole can ↑ levels and the risk of toxicity; avoid use for more than 14 consecutive days if possible.Concurrent use of lopinavir/ritonavir may ↑ blood levels and risk of adverse reactions. Concurrent use of other drugs that prolong the QT interval including fluoroquinolones, macrolides and clofazamine ) may ↑ risk of serious arrhythmias. Concurrent use of alcohol or hepatotoxic drugs may ↑ risk of adverse hepatic events.

Route/Dosage

Oral (Adults) 400 mg once daily for 2 wk, then 200 mg three times weekly (at least 48 hr between doses) for 22 wk.

Availability

Tablets: 100 mg

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Obtain ECG prior to starting therapy and at least 2, 12 and 24 wks after starting therapy to monitor for QT prolongation of >500 ms, clinically significant ventricular arrythmias, or if syncope occurs.
  • Lab Test Considerations: Monitor serum potassium, calcium, and magnesium at baseline and if Q-T prolongation is detected. Correct abnormalities.
    • Monitor liver function tests (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin at baseline, monthly during therapy, and as needed. If serum AST and ALT ↑ to 3 times the upper limit of normal, repeat test within 48 hr and test for viral hepatitis and other hepatotoxic medications. If symptoms of liver dysfunction (clinically significant ↑ serum ALT, AST or bilirubin and/or symptoms of fatigue, anorexia, nausea, jaundice, dark urine, liver tenderness, and hepatomegaly) occur re-evaluate. If AST and ALT ↑ accompanied by total bilirubin ↑ >2 times upper limit of normal, or if AST and ALT ↑ 8 time upper limits of normal, or if AST and ALT ↑ persist beyond 2 wks, discontinue bedaquiline.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Risk for infection (Indications)
Noncompliance (Patient/Family Teaching)

Implementation

  • Only administer by direct observation therapy (DOT).
  • Must be taken in combination with 3–4 other antitubercular drugs.
  • Oral: Administer with food. Swallow tablet whole; do not crush, break, or chew.
    • Weeks 1–2: administer 400 mg once daily.
    • Weeks 3–24: administer two 100 mg tablets 3 times/wk with at least 48 hrs between doses for a total of 600 mg/wk.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient to take bedaquiline as direct for the complete 24 wk course of therapy. Do not stop without discussing with health care professional. If a dose is missed during first 2 wks, skip dose and return to usual schedule. If a dose is missed wks 3–24, take missed dose as soon as remembered, then resume 3 times/wk regimen. Emphasize that bedaquiline is always taken with 3–4 other antitubercular medications and these medications should be continued unless discussed with health care professional. If any medications are stopped may decrease effectiveness of therapy and may increase risk of mycobacterium resistance and disease becoming untreatable in future.
  • Caution patient to avoid alcohol during therapy.
  • Advise patient to notify health care professional of all Rx or OTC medications, vitamins, or herbal products being taken and to consult with health care professional before taking other medications or alcohol.
  • Advise female patient to notify health care professional if pregnancy is planned or suspected or if breastfeeding.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Shortened time to sputum conversion to negativity and resultant decrease in infectiousness of patient and sequelae of tuberculosis.
Drug Guide, © 2015 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
In the latter part of 2018, the WHO released a rapid communication report further modifying the treatment of MDR-TB to a bedaquiline (BDQ)-containing, injectable-free regimen.
Comprising of bedaquiline, linezolid and the novel compound pretomanid, the rigorous new regimen is together called BPaL.
Pretomanid tablets were approved to be used with bedaquiline and linezolid in adults with extensive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) of the lungs.
The six-month, all-oral BPaL (bedaquiline and linezolid) regimen cured nine out of ten participants of the XDR-TB patients in the trials conducted in South Africa.
The three-drug regimen consisting of bedaquiline, pretomanid and linezolidA 6A collectively referred to as the BPaL regimenA 6A was studied in the pivotal Nix-TB trial across three sites inA South Africa.
Accelerated approval means the SIRTURO treatment - also known as bedaquiline - can be used as part of a combination therapy for eligible patients.
The new medicines, bedaquiline and delamanid, are the first permitted to be added into the TB treatment mix in more than five decades, and present an alternative for patients who have developed a resistance to other drugs or suffer from intense side effects, said MSF.
Bedaquiline is a new compound belonging to the diarylquinoline class used to treat MDR TB; cure and culture conversion rates using bedaquiline are promising (9,10).
Two new oral treatments, delamanid and bedaquiline, have demonstrated favorable efficacy and safety profiles for treating drug-resistant TB strains (9).
Bedaquiline is among the only two new TB drugs that have been approved over the last 40 years.