Normal head and neck glands showed moderate to strong beclin 1
expression (Figure 1).
The vesicle nucleation process is executed by a protein complex whose core comprises the class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3Kc3 or VPS34) which catalyzes phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; the PI3Kc3 regulatory subunit (p150 or VPS15), a myristylated serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates PI3Kc3 and recruits it to the membrane; and the BCL-2 interacting protein (Beclin 1
or ATG6), which appears to be a protein interaction hub.
reported that these dendrimers were very efficient to deliver siRNA to rat cortical neurons, leading to almost complete removal of the target protein Beclin 1
Chen et al., "Mcl-1-dependent activation of Beclin 1
mediates autophagic cell death induced by sorafenib and SC-59 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells," Cell Death & Disease, vol.
A non-canonical MEK/ERK signaling pathway regulates autophagy via regulating Beclin 1
. J Biol Chem 2009;284:21412-24.
Antibodies against PPAR[gamma], C/EBP[alpha], C/EBP[beta], cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin D2, beclin 1
, ATG7, ATG13, LC3, insulin R [beta], and [beta]-actin were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, USA).
Li et al., "Beclin 1
knockdown inhibits autophagic activation and prevents secondary neurodegenerative damage in the ipsilateral thalamus following focal cerebral infarction," Autophagy, vol.
It is associated with reduced expression of proteins important for autophagy induction, including ATGs, Sirtuin 1, Beclin 1
, ULK1, and LC3 .
Louis, MO, USA), p62, mTOR, p-mTOR, AKT, p-AKT, Atg5 (Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., USA), beclin 1
, IL-1[beta], IL-12, TNF-[alpha] (Abcam, Burlingame, CA, USA), and [beta]-actin (ZSGB-BIO, Inc., Beijing, China, all primary antibodies above were diluted 1: 1000) at 4[degrees]C overnight.
Qu et al., "Distinct roles of autophagy in the heart during ischemia and reperfusion: roles of AMPactivated protein kinase and Beclin 1
in mediating autophagy," Circulation Research, vol.
Through influence on BECN1 (Beclin 1
, autophagy-related) ROS activate formation of class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complexes and positively regulate autophagy; PtdIns3K is an intracellular energy sensor, which specifically responds to the energy depletion .
MnSOD: mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2; Parkin: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2); PGC1 a: peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha; HIF-1-[alpha]: hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit; Bcl-2: B-cell CLL-lymphoma 2; FOXO1: forkhead box O1; LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (MAP1LC3B); Beclin: beclin 1
, autophagy related (BECN1); LAMP2: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2; GADPH: glyceraldehyde- 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; CHOP: DNA damage inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3); PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3; PINK: PTEN-induced putative kinase 1; PARKIN: parkin ligase; FIS: fission, mitochondrial 1; MFN: mitofusin 1 (MFN1); Sox-9: transcription factor SOX-9.