The instruments used for performing cardiac surgery are cardiopulmonary bypass equipment, beating heart surgery
systems, perfusion disposable and cardiac ablation devices.
Alternately, the on-pump beating heart surgery
which eliminates the use of cross clamp should provide protection against neurological deficit as claimed by Sabban et al.18 In another retrospective study of 2,327 cases of coronary revascularization, Patel et al.19 have reported the prevalence of focal neurological deficit to be 1.6% in the on-pump group, 0.5% in the off-pump without aortic manipulation group while 0.4% in the off-pump with aortic manipulation group (p=0.027).
Off-pump or beating heart surgery
was developed to avoid post operative complications like kidney injury and pulmonary complications.
With experience beating heart surgery
has increased and now almost 90% of procedures are being performed on beating heart.
Robot-assisted motion compensation, as one of the promising treatment modalities for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) related surgery, including Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery, and Beating Heart Intracardiac Surgery, has some expected advantages, such as the relative high accuracy and the possibility of new surgery techniques, for example, minimally invasive beating heart surgery
. The off-pump surgery also brings central nervous risk and neurocognitive problems ; meanwhile, the surgeon has the limitation of the hand movement bandwidth to track beating heart motion and ensure a high-accurate operation.
Based on surgical devices the market is categorized into cardiac ablation devices, cardiopulmonary bypass equipment, prosthetics (artificial) heart valves, beating heart surgery
systems, and perfusion disposables.
Beating heart surgery
: This involves surgery without stopping the heart and without the heart replacement machine.
The report provides value, in millions of US dollars, volume (in units) and average price data (in US dollars), within market segments - Beating Heart Surgery
Systems, Cardiopulmonary Bypass Equipment, Chest Drainage Catheters and Units and Perfusion Disposables.
Cardiopulmonary bypass was used in 17 patients (beating heart surgery
was done in 15 patient and two patients underwent surgery with arrested heart where mitral valve replacement was done.
On-pump beating heart surgery
offers an alternative for unstable patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.
Lin, "On-pump beating heart surgery
," Heart Lung and Circulation, vol.
The study also showed a reduction in the time required to perform an anastomosis for beating heart surgery
when using LeGoo.