The presence of beam hardening
and artifacts surrounding the implant in some cases may complicate the CBCT visualization of the bone-implant interface.
CBCT suffers from beam hardening
artifacts because enamel is the hardest tissue in the human body, and the X-ray beam cannot be kept completely uniform.
Image artefacts can also occur due to the inherent polychromatic nature of x-ray beam which is known as beam hardening
6) VMC images (60-75 keV) can be used not only to increase CNR but also to improve overall image quality due to reduced beam hardening
artifact (as a result of the elimination of very low energy photons that contribute only to image noise).
Tenders are invited for Supply Of Beam Hardening
(loss of low energy photons in X-ray spectra) and dynamic range (here 12 bit) limit accuracy of X-ray computer tomography in these cases.
The electron beam hardening
is a high performance procedure of surface thermal treatment, very little industrially used in work-piece surface hardening due to insufficient knowledge of the adequate working conditions.
Without adequate beam hardening
correction, the changes in the attenuation coefficients of the rays as they pass through different densities are not proportional to the abrupt changes in the bulk densities of the media.
2010) and the dependences relations depicted in figures 1 to 5 showed that the hardness obtained by electron beam hardening
definitely depends on the type and proprieties of the work-piece material, which is a rather complex dependence.
Smart MAR addresses this challenge with an innovative three-stage, projection-based method designed to address both causes of metal artifacts photon starvation and beam hardening