2002), which may be an adaptation to detect bioluminescence in deeper bathypelagic
waters, adjacent to the vent sites (Frank & Case 1988).
zone is an area of ocean located 1,000 to 4,000 meters (3,280 to 13,123 feet) below the water's surface.
Unusual occurrence of several species of boreal, amphipacific and bathypelagic
fishes in Sagami Bay and adjoining waters during the first half of 1963, a cold water season in southern Japan.
The lack of food may explain the reduced size of most abyssal animals (especially bathypelagic
fish and most benthic invertebrates).
Phycis chesteri Benthopelagic No 90-1400 Helicolenus Bathydemersal No 50-1100 dactylopterus Scopelogadus Meso- to Yes 400-1000 beanii bathypelagic
Arctozenus Mesopelagic No 200-1000 risso Ceratoscopelus Mesopelagic Yes 330-600 maderensis Mean Otolith otolith length Number length range Prey species measured (cm) (cm) Laemonema 136 0.4 0.2-0.6 barbatulum Lobianchia 140 0.7 0.6-0.8 gemellarii Nezumia 198 0.8 0.5-1.0 bairdii Lampanyctus 127 0.3 0.2-0.4 spp.
[[delta].sup.13]C values of lipids from phototrophic zone microplankton and bathypelagic
shrimps at the Azores sector of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
It is a very small shark species, usually characterized as epipelagic to bathypelagic
(caught anywhere from the surface down to 3,700 m) (Retzer, 1990; Compagno, 2002c).
(Aphotic) Zone 1,000 to 4,000 m No light penetrates to the midnight zone.
Strasburg (1958) concluded that the whitetip "was surface dwelling north of the equator and bathypelagic
to the south," whereas Compagno (1984) suggested that this species can tolerate temperatures from 18[degrees] to 28[degrees]C but normally prefers water above 20[degrees]C.
A recently discovered bathypelagic
polychaete, Swima bombiviridis, can release a few large, ovoid bioluminescent "bombs" that are about 1-3 mm in length (Osborn et al., 2009), or about 50-1000 times more voluminous than chaetognath particles.
Most shallow waters mysids measure between 2 and 30 mm in length, but some bathypelagic
species such as Gnathophausia, grow up to 35 cm.
Shrimps feed actively at night, however physiological evidence suggests that the lower meso and bathypelagic
species are able to maintain their predatory activities throughout range of migration, by day as well as by night (Pearcy & Foress 1966).