2003); and (4) the ontogeny of eye structure, beginning at hatching and continuing through J-1, is consonant with a switch from bathypelagic
existence during larval stages to a benthic vent existence at metamorphosis (Jinks et al.
So, the bathypelagic
zone has no living plants, which require energy from the sun to grow.
and bathyal animals have large eyes, or tubular ones that concentrate the little light reaching this depth.
Reproduction of meso- and bathypelagic
chaetognaths in the genus Eukrohnia.
The liparid genus Psednos Barnard 1927 is a group of meso- and bathypelagic
snailfishes distinguished from the genus Paraliparis by having the infra-orbital canal of the cephalosensory system interrupted behind the eye and usually having a pronounced dorsal curvature of the spine, producing a "humpbacked" body.
Unusual occurrence of several species of boreal, amphipacific and bathypelagic
fishes in Sagami Bay and adjoining waters during the first half of 1963, a cold water season in southern Japan.
Some of these predators forage visually, despite the limited light conditions of meso- and bathypelagic
depths (Levenson and Schuster-man, 1999; Fristup and Harbison, 2002; Southall et al.
Most shallow waters mysids measure between 2 and 30 mm in length, but some bathypelagic
species such as Gnathophausia, grow up to 35 cm.
Shrimps feed actively at night, however physiological evidence suggests that the lower meso and bathypelagic
species are able to maintain their predatory activities throughout range of migration, by day as well as by night (Pearcy & Foress 1966).
Specifically, the bathypelagic
zone: Though spanning more than 90 percent of Earth's surface, the area from 1,000 to 4,000 meters (3,300 to 13,000 feet) below sea level is more a mystery to scientists than the moon (see diagram, p.
Berzin (1971) examined harvest records from the worldwide sperm whale fishery and suggested that sperm whale distribution was closely linked to processes that supported the meso- and bathypelagic
Most of the species that he dealt with are benthic, bathypelagic
, or mesopelagic, and many of the species are still represented by only the type series.