The corresponding lack of a cranial base might also be explained by intentional modification/removal of parts of the basicranium
in order to mount the cranium for display purposes.
This taxon is diagnosed by autopomorphic features observed in the basicranium
, vertebrae, and appendicular bones.
The skull is broken in half, most of the basicranium
and right side of the braincase are missing, the left tympanic bulla is loose and both zygomatic arches are broken.
A subsequent visit in 2008 yielded the basicranium
, an important structure for determining taxonomic relationships.
The sellar region is a relatively small area of valuable "real estate" in the basicranium.
Postgadolinium enhanced sequences are obtained with fat saturation to improve contrast between pathology and the basicranium.
This discipline allows us to study the position of the mandible and maxilla in relation to the position of the basicranium and adjacent structures.
Specific cranial landmarks were identified, and measurements were made of various aspects of the basicranium (figure 1), maxilla (figure 2), and mandible (figure 3), as well as the facial height (figure 4) and the facial axis (figure 5).
These structures, dome-shaped and obliquely orientated in the basicranium
The cranium, which lacks only the nasals and basicranium
, is compressed dorsoventrally and slightly toward the right.
A flat basicranium
-- ubiquitous in nonhuman animals -- indicates that the larynx, or voide box, sits high in the neck.
In comparative studies of mammals ranging from dolphins to apes, using dissections and X-ray movies, they find that a relatively straight, unflexed basicranium
indicates a larynx positioned high in the neck.