basal metabolism


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metabolism

 [mĕ-tab´o-lizm]
2. the sum of the physical and chemical processes by which living organized substance is built up and maintained (anabolism), and by which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules to make energy available to the organism (catabolism). Essentially these processes are concerned with the disposition of the nutrients absorbed into the blood following digestion.

There are two phases of metabolism: the anabolic and the catabolic phases. The anabolic, or constructive, phase is concerned with the conversion of simpler compounds derived from the nutrients into living, organized substances that the body cells can use. In the catabolic, or destructive, phase these organized substances are reconverted into simpler compounds, with the release of energy necessary for the proper functioning of the body cells.

The rate of metabolism can be increased by exercise; by elevated body temperature, as in a high fever, which can more than double the metabolic rate; by hormonal activity, such as that of thyroxine, insulin, and epinephrine; and by specific dynamic action that occurs following the ingestion of a meal.

The basal metabolic rate refers to the lowest rate obtained while an individual is at complete physical and mental rest. Metabolic rate usually is expressed in terms of the amount of heat liberated during the chemical reactions of metabolism. About 25 per cent of all energy from nutrients is utilized by the body to carry on its normal function; the remainder becomes heat.
basal metabolism the minimal energy expended for the maintenance of respiration, circulation, peristalsis, muscle tonus, body temperature, glandular activity, and the other vegetative functions of the body.

ba·sal me·tab·o·lism

oxygen used by a subject during minimal physiologic activity while awake; an obsolete test determined by measuring oxygen consumption of a fasting subject at complete bodily and mental rest and a room temperature of 20°C.

basal metabolism

n. Abbr. BM
The minimum amount of energy required to maintain vital functions in an organism at complete rest, measured by the basal metabolic rate in a fasting individual who is awake and resting in a comfortably warm environment.

basal metabolism

Etymology: Gk, basis + metabole, change
the amount of energy needed to maintain essential body functions, such as respiration, circulation, temperature, peristalsis, and muscle tone. Basal metabolism is measured when the subject is awake and at complete rest, has not eaten for 14 to 18 hours, and is in a comfortable, warm environment. It is expressed as a basal metabolic rate, according to Calories per hour per square meter of body surface. See also Calorie.

ba·sal me·tab·o·lism

(BM) (bāsăl mĕ-tabŏ-lizm)
Oxygen used by a subject during minimal physiologic activity while awake; a test determined by measuring oxygen consumption of a fasting subject at complete bodily and mental rest and a room temperature of 20°C.

basal metabolism

The minimum amount of energy needed to maintain the vital functions-heart beat, respiration and digestion-in a person at complete rest.

basal metabolism,

n the minimum amount of energy that the body requires to carry out normal functions such as respiration, temperature, peristalsis, circulation, and muscle tone.

basal

pertaining to or situated near a base; in physiology, pertaining to the lowest possible level.

basal body
the structure that acts as a template for the characteristic 9 + 2 arrangement of the microtubules of eukaryotic cilia and flagella.
basal cell tumors
neoplasms of the multipotential cells within the stratum germinativum of the skin. They are common in dogs and cats, are locally expansive and do not metastasize.
basal energy requirements (BER)
see energy requirements.
basal ganglia
a collection of masses of gray matter at the base of the cerebral hemispheres, subthalamus and midbrain which are responsible for much of the organization of the activity of somatic muscles. The individual nuclei are the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, endopeduncular nucleus, subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra. Other nuclei which have a similar function but are usually not included in the group are the amygdaloid nuclei and the red nucleus.
basal layer
see stratum basale.
basal membrane
the deepest layer of the epidermis in the avian skin. Called also dermoepidermal junction.
basal metabolic rate
see metabolic rate.
basal metabolism
the minimal energy expended for the maintenance of respiration, circulation, peristalsis, muscle tonus, body temperature, glandular activity and the other vegetative functions of the body. See also metabolic rate.
basal metabolism test
a method of measuring the body's expenditure of energy by recording its rate of oxygen intake and consumption. Once a major test of thyroid gland function, it is being replaced by diagnostic tests requiring less extensive preparation and capable of producing more accurate test results, e.g. the determination of the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood and the radioiodine uptake test.
basal nuclei
see basal ganglion.
basal plate
the ventral plate of the developing neural tube of the embryo; associated with motor output from the CNS.
basal tone
degree of contractile tension remaining in blood vessels after complete elimination of all external excitatory influences.
References in periodicals archive ?
2) Total energy expenditure includes energy needs for basal metabolism, kcal for all physical activity and specific dynamic action of food.
They possess a similar level of digestive enzyme activities; then, there are good reasons, according to values of metabolism rates obtained in this study, to think that tropical species present a higher basal metabolism and activity that leaves them more dependent on regular food supply for their development.
4 kg; Enhydra lutris), we assumed that postprandial resting metabolism was 50% higher than basal metabolism (Costa and Kooyman 1984, Diamond et al.
It is well known that the metabolism of fed animals during the active period is somewhat higher than basal metabolism (e.
18) A further advantage of exercise is that while a diet alone reduces basal metabolism, exercise during dieting actually increases basal metabolism and post-exercise energy expenditure.
29) Diet programs such as Atkins and others vary the diet in both content and caloric composition in an attempt to trick metabolism and by increasing basal metabolism and reducing caloric intake, causing a reduction in body weight.
The data on body masses and mass-specific rates of basal metabolism were taken from the reviews by McNab (1988a) and Elgar and Harvey (1987), with additional data from Altman and Ditmer (1974), and are presented in table 1.
Correlation analysis shows that although the rate of basal metabolism and body mass are highly intercorrelated (this relationship is represented by a well-known Kleiber's curve, see, e.
The normal daily calorie intake depends on the basal metabolism rate and the activity factor.