# basal metabolic rate

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Related to basal metabolic rate: Resting metabolic rate

## rate

[rāt]
the speed or frequency with which an event or circumstance occurs per unit of time, population, or other standard of comparison.
adjusted rate a fictitious summary rate statistically adjusted to remove the effect of a variable, such as age or sex, to permit unbiased comparison between groups having different compositions with respect to these variables. See also crude rate and specific rate.
attack rate in the analysis of acute outbreaks of disease, the proportion of persons who are exposed to the disease during the outbreak who do become ill.
basal metabolic rate an expression of the rate at which oxygen is utilized in a fasting subject at complete rest as a percentage of a value established as normal for such a subject. Abbreviated BMR.
birth rate the number of live births in a geographic area in a defined period, usually one year, relative to some specified population. For the crude birth rate, it is the average total population or the midyear population in the area during the period. Specific birth rates for subsets of the population may also be calculated, for example, an age-specific birth rate is limited to the population of females of a defined age range.
case fatality rate the number of deaths due to a specific disease as compared to the total number of cases of the disease.
crude rate one giving the total number of events occurring in an entire population over a period of time, without reference to any of the individuals or subgroups within the population. See also adjusted rate and specific rate.
death rate the number of deaths in a certain period of time divided by the total of a given population. The crude death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths in a geographic area in one year divided by the average population in the area during the year. The age-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths occurring in a specified age group to the average population of that group. The cause-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths due to a specified cause to the average total population. Called also mortality rate.
Historic example of death rates (per 100,000) for leading causes of death for men aged 25–44 years. From Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 42:483, 1993.
DEF rate an expression of dental caries experienced in primary teeth, calculated by adding number of those requiring filling (D), decayed teeth requiring extraction (E), and those that have already been successfully filled (F); missing primary teeth are not included in the calculation.
DMF rate an expression of the condition of the permanent teeth based on the number of teeth decayed, missing (or indicated for removal), and filled or bearing restorations. It is calculated by adding the number of carious permanent teeth requiring filling (D), carious ones requiring extraction (Mr), ones previously extracted because of caries (Mp), and permanent teeth (F).
dose rate the amount of any therapeutic agent administered per unit of time.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) see erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
fatality rate the death rate in a specific group of persons simultaneously affected by some event or circumstances, such as a natural disaster.
fertility rate a measure of fertility in a defined population over a specified period of time, usually one year; particularly the general fertility rate, but also including more specific rates such as those for females of a given parity or a particular age range or that describing the completed rate for females who have finished childbearing.
fetal death rate the ratio of the number of fetal deaths in one year to the total number of both live births and fetal deaths in that year.
five-year survival rate an expression of the number of survivors with no trace of a given disease five years after each has been diagnosed or treated for the disease.
flow rate flow (def. 2).
forced expiratory flow rate forced expiratory flow.
general fertility rate the most widely used measure of fertility; the number of live births in a geographic area in a year per 1000 women of childbearing age, which is usually defined as age 15 to 44 years.
glomerular filtration rate an expression of the quantity of glomerular filtrate formed each minute in the nephrons of both kidneys, calculated by measuring the clearance of specific substances, e.g., inulin or creatinine.
growth rate an expression of the increase in size of an organic object per unit of time.
heart rate the number of contractions of the cardiac ventricles per unit of time (usually per minute).
incidence rate the risk of developing a particular disease during a given period of time; the numerator of the rate is the number of new cases during the specified time period and the denominator is the population at risk during the period. Compare prevalence r.
infant mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than one year of age to the number of live births in that year.
intrinsic rate in cardiac pacing terminology, the heart rate unaided by an artificial pacemaker, expressed in beats per minute (bpm). See also cycle length.
maternal mortality rate a rate in which the numerator is the number of maternal deaths ascribed to puerperal causes in one year; the number of live births in that year is often used as the denominator, although to make a true rate the denominator should be the number of pregnancies (live births plus fetal deaths). Called also puerperal mortality rate.
maximal expiratory flow rate (MEFR) maximal expiratory flow.
maximal midexpiratory flow rate (MMFR) maximal midexpiratory flow.
mendelian rate an expression of the numerical relations of the occurrence of distinctly contrasted mendelian characteristics in succeeding generations of hybrid offspring.
metabolic rate an expression of the amount of oxygen consumed by the body cells.
morbidity rate an inexact term that can mean either the incidence rate or the prevalence rate.
mortality rate death rate.
neonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than 28 days of age to the number of live births in that year.
paced rate in cardiac pacing terminology, the rate of pulses of an artificial pacemaker, expressed as pulses per minute (ppm). See also cycle length.
perinatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of the sum of fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) and deaths of infants less than 7 days of age in one time period and population to the sum of the number of live births and fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) in that same time period and population.
postneonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in a given year of children between the 28th day of life and the first birthday relative to the difference between the number of the live births and neonatal deaths in that year; the denominator is sometimes simplified, less correctly, to the number of live births. The ratio is sometimes approximated as the difference between the infant mortality rate and the neonatal mortality rate.
prevalence rate the number of people in a population who have a disease at a given time; the numerator is the number of existing cases of disease at a specified time and the denominator is the total population. Time may be a point or a defined interval, and is traditionally the former if unspecified. Compare incidence r.
puerperal mortality rate maternal mortality r.
pulse rate the rate of the pulse, measured as number of pulsations in an artery per unit of time; normally between 60 and 80 per minute in an adult.
respiration rate the number of inhalations and exhalations per unit of time, usually measured by observation of chest movements and averaging 16 to 20 per minute in an adult.
sedimentation rate the rate at which a sediment is deposited in a given volume of solution, especially when subjected to the action of a centrifuge; see also erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
slew rate in cardiac pacing, the rate, expressed in units of mV/msec, at which an R wave reaches peak amplitude; it represents the maximum rate of change of amplifier output voltage.
specific rate a rate that applies to a specific demographic subgroup, e.g., individuals of a specific age, sex, or race, giving the total number of events in relation only to that subgroup. See also adjusted rate and crude rate.
stillbirth rate fetal death rate.

## ba·sal me·tab·o·lism

oxygen used by a subject during minimal physiologic activity while awake; an obsolete test determined by measuring oxygen consumption of a fasting subject at complete bodily and mental rest and a room temperature of 20°C.

## basal metabolic rate

n. Abbr. BMR
The rate at which energy is used by an organism at complete rest, measured in humans by the heat given off per unit time, and expressed as the calories released per kilogram of body weight or per square meter of body surface per hour.

## basal metabolic rate (BMR)

the amount of energy used in a unit of time by a fasting, resting subject to maintain vital functions. The rate, determined by the amount of oxygen used, is expressed in Calories consumed per hour per square meter of body surface area or per kilogram of body weight. Also called basal energy expenditure (BEE). See also Calorie.

## basal metabolic rate

A baseline rate of metabolism expressed as O2 consumption or heat production under resting or at basal conditions, usually measured long after eating.

The BMR may be calculated with a formula for calculating a person’s proteo-caloric requirements; BMR is measured under basal conditions—12 hours after eating, after a night’s sleep, no exercise or activity preceding test, without emotional stress and at a comfortable temperature. BMR is increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism.

The most commonly used formula for calculating BMR is that of Harris and Benedict:
BMR, Male= 66 + (13.7 x Wt) + (5 x Ht) – (6.8 x age)

BMR, Female: 655 + (9.6 x Wt) + (1.8 x Ht) – (4.7 x age)

## basal metabolic rate

Basic metabolic rate, BMR A baseline rate of metabolism expressed as oxygen consumption or heat production under resting or basal conditions, usually long after eating

## ba·sal met·a·bol·ic rate

(BMR) (bā'săl met'ă-bol'ik rāt)
The minimal amount of energy required to sustain the body's vital functions in the waking state.

## basal metabolic rate

The rate at which energy is used by a person at rest. The BMR is measured in terms of the heat given off in a given time.

## basal metabolic rate (BMR) or basal metabolic level (BML)

the minimal rate of METABOLISM in a resting organism in an environment with a temperature the same as its own body heat, whilst not digesting or absorbing food. The rate is commonly expressed in terms of energy per unit surface area per unit time, usually as kJ m-2 h-1. See STANDARD METABOLIC RATE, REGULATORY HEAT PRODUCTION.

## basal metabolic rate

measure of total cellular activity and energy used in support of basic life functions

## basal metabolic rate,

n the rate of metabolism at rest.

## ba·sal met·a·bol·ic rate

(BMR) (bā'săl met'ă-bol'ik rāt)
The minimal amount of energy required to sustain life in the waking state.

## basal

pertaining to or situated near a base; in physiology, pertaining to the lowest possible level.

basal body
the structure that acts as a template for the characteristic 9 + 2 arrangement of the microtubules of eukaryotic cilia and flagella.
basal cell tumors
neoplasms of the multipotential cells within the stratum germinativum of the skin. They are common in dogs and cats, are locally expansive and do not metastasize.
basal energy requirements (BER)
see energy requirements.
basal ganglia
a collection of masses of gray matter at the base of the cerebral hemispheres, subthalamus and midbrain which are responsible for much of the organization of the activity of somatic muscles. The individual nuclei are the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, endopeduncular nucleus, subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra. Other nuclei which have a similar function but are usually not included in the group are the amygdaloid nuclei and the red nucleus.
basal layer
see stratum basale.
basal membrane
the deepest layer of the epidermis in the avian skin. Called also dermoepidermal junction.
basal metabolic rate
see metabolic rate.
basal metabolism
the minimal energy expended for the maintenance of respiration, circulation, peristalsis, muscle tonus, body temperature, glandular activity and the other vegetative functions of the body. See also metabolic rate.
basal metabolism test
a method of measuring the body's expenditure of energy by recording its rate of oxygen intake and consumption. Once a major test of thyroid gland function, it is being replaced by diagnostic tests requiring less extensive preparation and capable of producing more accurate test results, e.g. the determination of the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood and the radioiodine uptake test.
basal nuclei
see basal ganglion.
basal plate
the ventral plate of the developing neural tube of the embryo; associated with motor output from the CNS.
basal tone
degree of contractile tension remaining in blood vessels after complete elimination of all external excitatory influences.
References in periodicals archive ?
Soares MJ and PS Shetty Validity of Schofield's predictive equations for basal metabolic rates of Indians.
The validity of predicting the basal metabolic rate of young Australian men and women.
2] Table 3 Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), Kcal for All Physical Activity, Specific Dynamic Action (SDA) of Food, Total Energy Expenditure (TEE), Total Energy Intake(TEI) and Energy Balance (EB) of the Young and Old Groups.
The basal metabolic rate is therefore related to the surface area of an animal's body.
In addition to presenting a summary on the wolf as a carnivore, the authors of chapter 4 use data from the literature to calculate the basal metabolic rate (energy requirements) of wolves, which has not been reported previously.
Extremely low calorie diets and fasting often result in loss of lean muscle and a resultant decrease in basal metabolic rate, often resulting in health problems and difficulty in maintaining weight loss.
Increases basal metabolic rate (may be more pronounced in trained subjects)
Obesity can become an issue in middle age and the basal metabolic rate starts to decline in this decade.
Broda Barnes emphasized this aspect of metabolism as a major cause of "subclinical hypothyroidism," a condition that he emphasized was diagnosed only with a basal metabolic rate (BMR).
Determine Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): Women: 655 + X + Y- Z = Men: 66 + X + Y-Z = Step 4.

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